Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Metharbital, Hydantoins: Phenytoin, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin : Pharmaguideline -->

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Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Metharbital, Hydantoins: Phenytoin, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin

Barbiturates are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to produce sedation, sleep, or anesthesia.

Barbiturates

Barbiturates are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to produce sedation, sleep, or anesthesia.
  • Barbiturates were first synthesized in 1864 and were used as general anesthetics starting in the early 1900s.
  • Barbiturates were also commonly used to treat anxiety and insomnia until the 1970s when safer and more effective medications became available.
  • Barbiturates are classified as schedule IV controlled substances in the United States.
  • This means that they have a moderate potential for abuse and dependence and can only be prescribed by a physician who has registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
Some barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are available as generic medications while others, such as secobarbital (Seconal), are available only by prescription.

Uses
Barbiturates are used as general anesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants.

General anesthetics
General anesthetics are drugs that are used to induce anesthesia, which is a state of reversible coma or unconsciousness.

Barbiturates are not commonly used as general anesthetics anymore due to their potential for side effects and dependence.

Sedatives
Sedatives are drugs that are used to relieve anxiety or help you sleep.

Hypnotics
Barbiturates are not commonly used as hypnotics anymore due to their potential for side effects and dependence.

Anticonvulsants
Anticonvulsants are drugs that are used to treat seizures.

Increased effects
Barbiturates can increase the effects of other drugs that act on the CNS, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.

This can lead to increased sedation, respiratory depression, and coma.

Decreased effects
Barbiturates can decrease the effects of other drugs that act on the CNS, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.

This can lead to increased anxiety and respiratory depression.

Side effects
Barbiturates can cause a variety of side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, agitation, nausea, and vomiting.


Phenobarbitone

Phenobarbitone is a barbiturate that is used as a general anesthetic, sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant.

Phenobarbitone can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.

Metharbital

Metharbital is a barbiturate that is used as a general anesthetic, sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant.

It is available only by prescription and has a short half-life. This means that it doesn't stay in your system for very long and you will likely feel the effects within minutes of taking it.

Metharbital can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.

It is available only by prescription and has a short half-life. This means that it doesn't stay in your system for very long and you will likely feel the effects within minutes of taking it.

Metharbital can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.
 

Hydantoins

Hydantoins are a class of drugs that are used as general anesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. This means that they don't stay in your system for very long and you will likely feel the effects within minutes of taking them.

Hydantoins can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.

Phenytoin

Phenytoin is a hydantoin that is used as an anticonvulsant. It is available as a generic medication and is one of the most commonly prescribed hydantoins in the United States. Phenytoin has a long half-life and can stay in your system for up to two weeks after you stop taking it.

Phenytoin can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.

Mephenytoin

Mephenytoin is a hydantoin that is used as an anticonvulsant. It is available only by prescription and has a short half-life. This means that it doesn't stay in your system for very long and you will likely feel the effects within minutes of taking it.

Mephenytoin can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.
 

Ethotoin

Ethotoin is a hydantoin that is used as an anticonvulsant. It is available only by prescription and has a short half-life. This means that it doesn't stay in your system for very long and you will likely feel the effects within minutes of taking it.

Ethotoin can interact with other drugs to increase or decrease their effects.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of pharmaguideline.com, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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