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Excipients Used in Semi Solid Dosage Forms and Evaluation of Semi Solid Dosages Forms

Pharmaceutical excipients, Preservatives, Humectants, Emulsifying agents, Anti-oxidant, Organoleptic agents, Dosage forms of semisolids like Ointments
Dermo pharmacological products are formulated in semisolid form, which is applied to the skin or mucous membranes to act therapeutically and as protective agents.

Pharmaceutical excipients

It can be either included to assist in the manufacture of the system, or it can either protect, support, or enhance stability, bioavailability, or patient acceptability or it can be used to assist in the identification of the product or it may contribute to its overall safety and effectiveness.

It should be -
  • Regulatory agencies in all countries in which the product will be sold must be satisfied that they are nontoxic.
  • All countries where the product will be manufactured must offer them in a commercially acceptable grade.
  • No segment of the population should be contraindicated by them (e.g., sucrose) or by a component (e.g., sodium).
  • Physiologically inert substances are required.
  • It is important that tablet components be stable physically and chemically both individually and when combined/d with pharmaceutical products.
  • Their microbiological load must be within acceptable limits.
  • They must be color-compatible (they must not appear strangely colored).
  • Several vitamin products are classified as food-derived products that require food additives for diluents and other excipients.
  • The ingredients must not influence the bioavailability of the drugs in the product in any negative way.


The preservatives prevent the growth of microbes. For the preservatives not to react with ingredients in the formulation, they should not be present. In plastic containers, the preservative may be absorbed, and as a result, the concentration at which bacteria can be killed is reduced.


The moisture loss from the preparation can be reduced by using glycerine, propylene glycol, and sorbitol. In chemistry, humectants are a sort of hygroscopic substance. It incorporates a solvent that will enhance a medication's solubility. The skin penetration of the cream has been elevated due to the humectants. It also enhances skin hydration.

Emulsifying agents

When necessary, polysorbate emulsifying agents and anionic emulsifying agents will be added.


Oxidation can occur with certain ingredients, such as wool fat and wool alcohols. Antioxidants may therefore be incorporated to guard against oxidation and preserve the effectiveness of the active ingredients.

Organoleptic agents

It includes Flavors (vanilla, strawberry, raspberry), colorants (amaranth, brilliant blue, etc.), and colorings (amaranth, brilliant blue, etc.). Ideally, the ointment should be stored at room temperature rather than at an extremely high temperature, otherwise, phases can separate in the emulsified product, which is difficult to remix to yield a uniform appearance.

Evaluation of semi-solid dosage forms

The main purpose of semisolids is localized delivery of the drugs. Recently, however, these forms have been investigated as a means to deliver various drugs via the systemic route. In the pharmaceutical industry, semisolids account for a large proportion of dosage forms. Among the sites where they can be applied topically are the skin, cornea, rectal tissues, nasal mucosa, vaginal and buccal tissues, urethral membranes, and external ears.

Dosage forms of semisolids


A topical or subcutaneous ointment is a semisolid preparation used externally on skin or mucous membranes. A majority of these products contain either dissolved, suspended, or emulsified medications.


These preparations contain finely ground solids, such as zinc oxide and starch, that are then incorporated to produce an extruded paste. Most of them have a very thick and stiff consistency.


In addition to the mouth, it should also be used in other cavities of the body. You can insert them into the rectum, the vagina, or the urethra.


Transparent or translucent, these preparations are nongreasy and thin. The gums they are prepared with are similar to mucilages since they are prepared with gums, but their consistency is similar to gel.

Rigid forms

Gases or other materials are emulsified in a liquid phase to such an extent that they become stiff.


This solid or semisolid mass adheres to the skin when it is spread on a cotton felt line or muslin backing.


Gelatine and glycerine are mixed in equal parts to form a mass that liquefies at a gentle heat, used for suppositories and urethral bougies.


The most commonly used creams are viscous semisolid emulsions for use on skin or mucous membranes
O /W types
W /O types


As well as being known as cataplasms, these are solid wet masses of soft, viscous substance.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of pharmaguideline.com, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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