Significance and Principle Involved in Determination of Iodine Value, Acetyl Value, Reichert Meissl (RM) Value : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

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Significance and Principle Involved in Determination of Iodine Value, Acetyl Value, Reichert Meissl (RM) Value

Among the three essential trace elements in the human body, iodine is one of them.

Determination of Iodine Value


Among the three essential trace elements in the human body, iodine is one of them. There are only about 14 mg of iodine in the body, but it is essential for the production of thyroid hormone, which plays a key role in regulating the metabolic rate. Only 1 mg per week is needed to meet our body's requirements. Many salts are fortified with iodine salts today, which is one reason why goiters have become less common compared to the past. A protein (primarily thyroid, binding globulin) binds to the end-product and transports it around the bloodstream. The hormone is slowly released into cells in an active form, and then regulates nerve fiber excitability, which then affects metabolism.


The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones with the help of iodine. In some medical communities, iodine deficiency is considered to be a "silent epidemic.". Patients as well as doctors routinely overlook its importance despite its stark importance. In addition to being essential for the thyroid gland, hormone-related minerals are also important for our adrenal glands, reproductive system, and entire hormone system. Between 92 and 96% of the world's developed nations are iodinated deficient, according to a primary study. Fatty acids and oils have a high iodine content. Measurements of unsaturation are based on the Iodine value. Consequently, the amount of double bonds present in the oil or fat will vary depending on the type of oil or fat! An example is nonane (c9), which is an oil, but it possesses no double bonds, so when we reach c11-c12, we are in the waxy phase. Oil tends to have more double bonds in general, but that may simply reflect the lengths of the alkane chains included in the mix.

Determination of Acetyl Value


After acetylation of 1 gm of fat or oil, the amount of potassium hydroxide solution required to neutralize the acetic acid produced. Rancidity usually occurs in conjunction with free fatty acid formation, so determining the acid value is often used as an indication of the edibility and condition of oils. The acidity level of 1.0 gram of fat or oil corresponds to the amount of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free fatty acids. Measurement of hydroxyl groups is achieved with this method. An acetylated fat or oil is saponified into acetic acid by using the milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize it.


Titration of a solution of oil in diethyl ether with a sodium or potassium hydroxide alcoholic solution will give an oil's acidity value. To neutralize 1 g of oil, approximately 1 mg of KOH is needed. In many cases, the acid value is converted to FFA content by multiplying the acid value by a factor equal to the molality of the fatty acid (usually oleic acid, MW = 282.4), divided by ten times the molality of potassium hydroxide (56.1). Since the acid value is measured in mg/g, while the FFA content is measured as a percentage, the factor ten is applicable. Using 'wt% oleic acid' as the equivalent of FFA content, the factor equals 0.50.

Determination of Reichert Meissl (RM) Value


Saponification involves extracting volatile fatty acids from fat, and a Reichert value represents how much. 0.1 ml of normal hydroxide is equivalent to 5 grams of saponified fat distilled and filtered to obtain water-soluble volatile fatty acids that have to be neutralized after distillation and filtration. Titration of steam distillate determines this measure of volatile fatty acids. This is the number of milliliters of N/10 alkali that is required to neutralize 5 grams of fat or oil derived from soluble volatile fatty acids. This measurement is used to identify adulterants in food.


Saponification is the process by which fat is extracted of its volatile fatty acids, measured as a Reichert value. A quantity of 0.1 ml of normal hydroxide is equal to the amount of water-soluble volatile fatty acids that must be neutralized after distillation and filtration from 5 grams of saponified fat.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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