Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

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Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene

Benzene rings fused in orthoposition are known as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene.

Naphthalene

Structure

Benzene rings fused in orthoposition are known as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. Bond lengths at double bond positions are approximately 1.36 angstroms, and those at single bond positions are approximately 1.40 angstroms. In its structure, the naphthalene molecule demonstrates resonance. Resonance hybridization occurs. Molecular orbitals in Naphthalene forms three orbitals. This structure is referred to as a canonical structure. A Naphthalene molecule has three resonance structures.



Medicinal Uses

  • The carbaryl drug industry uses naphthalene. Insecticides are made from these drugs.
  • In the manufacturing of nadoxolol drug, naphthalene is used as a beta blocking agent.
  • Naphthalene sulphonated is used as a surfactant.
  • To make synthetic dyes, naphthalene is used.
  • A variety of dyes are made with amino naphthalene sulfonic acid.

Phenanthrene

Structure

There are three fused benzene rings in the formula of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The substance is a colorless, crystal-like solid, but sometimes appears yellow.



Medicinal Uses

Fuels with incomplete combustion produce phenanthrene, which is present in the products. Vehicle emissions, coal and oil burning, wood combustion, oil shale plants, coke plants, iron and steel works, foundries, aluminum plants, municipal incineration plants, and tobacco smoke are known sources of phenanthrene in the atmosphere.

Anthracene

Structure

The formula for anthracene is C14H10, a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a three-fused benzene ring. This is an ingredient in coal tar. In addition to producing alizarin, anthracene is used to make other dyes. Despite being colorless, anthracene fluoresces blue (400–500 nm peak) under ultraviolet light.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed when three benzene rings combine to form anthracene. There are three types of molecules: polycyclic and aromatic. Polycyclic molecules have more than one ring, aromatic molecules have double-single bonds that alternate along their rings, and hydrocarbon molecules contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.



Medicinal Uses

  • The anthracene molecules are converted predominantly into anthraquinone, a dye precursor.
  • A large band gap organic semiconductor, anthracene, is used as a scintillator in photon, electron, and alpha particle detectors. Using polyvinyltoluene as a scintillator can be made with anthracene doped plastics, such as polyvinyltoluene. Anthracene emits spectra centered between 440 and 400 nm.
  • A wood preservative, insecticide, and coating are some products that contain it.
  • Conformal coatings of printed wiring boards often contain UV tracer compounds like anthracene. Conformal coatings can be UV-inspected using the anthracene tracer. Anaquinone use also includes anthracene.
  • Anthracene derivatives find application in a number of fields.Phytoanthracenes (also known as anthrol and anthracenol) are hydroxylated derivatives of phenols and naphthols, and 1-hydroxyanthracene and 2-hydroxyanthracene are pharmacologically active. Anthracene with a number of hydroxyl groups is 9,10-dihydroxyanthracene.
  • The production of anthracene occurs in combustion processes, as is the case with many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke from tobacco products and combustion materials in food are the primary sources of exposure for humans.
  • In several studies, anthracene has not been found to be carcinogenic. It has been found to have no genotoxic effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. Early studies, however, suggested otherwise because crude samples didn't appear to be free of other polycyclic aromatic compounds. Furthermore, it can easily be biodegraded in soil. Light is particularly damaging when it comes into contact with it.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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