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Heat Transfer: Objectives, Applications and Heat Transfer Mechanisms

A temperature difference between the system and its surroundings causes heat to move across the system's border.

Heat Transfer

The definition of heat transfer in thermodynamic systems

A temperature difference between the system and its surroundings causes heat to move across the system's border.

There is a phenomenon known as 'potential' where a difference in temperature causes the transference of heat from one point to another. Flux is another name for heat.

Objectives

  • A wide range of applications can be performed using heat for industrial scale operations.
  • Energy used in industries is primarily provided by electricity and steam.
  • To avoid heat loss, it is necessary to know how heat is transferred.
  • Effective and economical designs are easier to achieve with knowledge of heat transfer.

Applications

In the pharmaceutical industry, heat transfer has numerous applications. The following are notable examples:

Crystallization

  • Purification of pharmaceutical products is made possible by this process.
  • When heat is applied to a saturated solution of a substance, the solution becomes supersaturated, causing the substance to crystallize.

Distillation

  • Boiling the liquid mixture separates the components of the mixture in the form of vapour, which can be collected separately.
  • This process is carried out using heat.

Drying

  • It simply implies the removal of moisture or a solvent, which can be accomplished using heat.

Evaporation

  • It involves converting a liquid into vapors through heating so that they can be removed.
  • Vegetable extracts are particularly suitable for this process.

Sterilization

  • An object or substance must be completely sterilized in order to remove microbes.
  • Pharmaceuticals are sterilized with both dry and wet heat methods.

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

A heat transfer mechanism is a mechanism that allows thermal energy to be transferred from one object to another. They are all based on the basic principle that thermal energy or kinetic energy wants to be in equilibrium or at equal energy levels. Radiant heat is a more general term for many different kinds of heat transfer, such as conduction, convection, and conduction (which are all ways that heat is transferred).

Conduction

In terms of creating a mathematical explanation for what's happening, conduction is the simplest model of heat transfer. The flow of kinetic energy through a substance is due to the movement of high temperatures to lower temperatures. As they interact with adjacent molecules, the molecules give their energy away until an equilibrium is reached. Usually, the conductivity model does not account for particle movement within a material.

Convection

Fluid motion (such as air or water) causes convection to transfer heat. Convection differs from conduction by the way a material carrier moves; conduction involves making a material hot by moving atoms, while convection moves thermal energy. A difference in density usually causes this motion. The particles with higher temperatures are less dense, so they will move to cooler regions, whereas those with lower temperatures will move to warmer areas. At some point, equilibrium will be reached because of the motion of the fluid.

Radiant heat (radiation)

Radiant heat is heat that is transferred through radiation. Radiant heat is simply radiant energy, without a medium necessary to transmit it. Radiation from a type of electromagnetic source facilitates this form of energy transfer. Electromagnetic waves are generated when charged particles move. Upon meeting another particle, the wave propagates. It will be converted into kinetic energy by the particle it hits. Even after all particles have been heated to the same temperature, radiation will still be received and emitted, but it will not be noticeable because the material is at equilibrium.

Heat transfer of this type plays a crucial role in determining Earth's temperature. From the sun, Earth gets its energy from radiation, as heat transfer. The greenhouse effect is also a result of radiation.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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