Sources and Types of Microbial Contaminants : Pharmaguideline

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Sources and Types of Microbial Contaminants

Microbes play a crucial role in our surroundings. Almost anywhere and everywhere you look, you will find them.

Sources and Types of Microbial Contamination

Microbes play a crucial role in our surroundings. Almost anywhere and everywhere you look, you will find them. As a result, pharmaceutical items may get contaminated during large-scale manufacture, small-scale hospital manufacturing, or patient usage. The many sources of microbial contamination in pharmaceutical goods are listed below.

Contamination may occur in large scale production, as well as medium and small scale manufacturing, from the following causes.

Water - Water is a significant source of pollution. Pseudomonas, Achromo bacteria, and other low demand gramme negative groups are common waterborne microorganisms found in both portable and filtered water. The water supply may pollute the ion-exchange column, and microorganisms may proliferate there, contaminating the cleansed water.

Air of the manufacturing area - There are billions of suspended particles and bacteria in the air. Fungus spores such as penicillium, mucor, aspergillus, and ete. Bacterial spores, such as Bacillius sp., are also detected. These spores and microorganisms have the potential to contaminate pharmaceutical goods. This form of contamination is reduced by production in a clean room or an aseptic environment with a continuous flow of sterile air via a HEPA filter.

Containers - If the containers are not sterile, they may create contamination.
Water and the environment are the primary sources of pollutants in hospital production. Water is held in storage tanks in hospitals, where fungus, bacteria, and algi microorganisms can grow. Because of the presence of diseased patients and frequent visitors, hospital air may be polluted with dangerous microorganisms.

Raw materials - The basic ingredients used in pharmaceutical products vary greatly. Clays and earth minerals such as bentonite, kaolin ete can harbour anaerobia spores such as Clostridium sp. Coliform bacteria, such as E. Coli, may be found in starch. Actinomycetes may be found in gums. Bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella sp. ete can be found in animal products.

Equipments - Manufacturing equipment may include germs if it is not sufficiently sterile. Non-specific and local populations of microorganisms may be found in grinders, blenders, filters, and ete.

Human resources - During usage, pharmaceutical items may get contaminated. The patient may contaminate his own medication. Contaminants can spread to other patients via physicians, nurses, and so on.

Personnel - Pharmaceutical items may potentially be contaminated by manufacturing workers. Personnel may become contaminated with coliform bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, actino bacteria, and Candida. Contamination of this sort can be reduced by regular health checks, vaccinations, and personnel cleanliness. Personnel protection and training may also help to reduce contamination.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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