**Acetaldehyde Standard Solution**

**(100**

**ppm C**Dissolve 1.0 g of acetaldehyde in sufficient 2-propanol to produce 100 ml and dilute 5.0ml of the solution to 500.0 ml with 2-propanol.

_{2}H_{4}O):**Aluminium Standard Solution (2 ppm Al):**Dilute 2 volumes of a 0.176 percent w/v solution of aluminium potassium sulfate in 0.1 M sulphuric acid to 100 volumes with water.

**Aluminium Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Al):**Dilute 1 volume of a 1.39 percent w/v solution of aluminium nitrate to 100 volumes with water.

**Ammonium Standard Solution**

**(1**

**ppm**

**NH**Dilute 10.0ml of a 0.0741 % w/v solution of ammonium chloride to 25.0 ml with ammonia-free water. Dilute 1 volume of the resulting solution to 100 volumes with ammonia-free water immediately before use.

_{4}):**Arsenic Standard Solution**

**(1**

**ppm As):**Dilute J volume of arsenic standard solution (10 ppm As) to 10 volumes with water.

**Arsenic Standard Solution (10 ppm As):**Dissolve 0.33 g of arsenic trioxide in 5 ml of 2M sodium hydroxide and dilute to 250.0 ml with water. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100 volumes with water.

**Barium Standard Solution (10 ppm Ba):**Dilute 1.0 ml of a 0.178 percent w/v solution of barium chloride to 100.0 ml with water.

**Cadmium Standard Solution (10 ppm Cd):**Dilute 2.0 ml of a 0.228 percent w/v solution of cadmium sulfate to 200.0 ml with water.

**Calcium Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Ca):**Dissolve 0.624 g of dried calcium carbonate in distilled water containing 3 ml of 5 M acetic acid and dilute to 250.0 ml of distilled water. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100 volumes with distilled water.

**Calcium Standard Solution (100 ppm Ca), Ethanolic:**Dissolve 2.50 g of dried calcium carbonate in 12 ml of 5 M acetic acid and dilute to 1000.0 ml with distilled water. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 10 volumes with ethanol (95 percent).

**Chloride Standard Solution (5 ppm Cl):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.0824 percent w/v solution of sodium chloride to 100 volumes with water.

**Chloride Standard Solution (25 ppm CI):**Dilute 5 volumes of a 0.0824 percent w/v solution of sodium chloride to 100 volumes with water.

**Copper Standard Solution:**Dissolve 1.965 g of cupric sulfate, accurately weighed, in sufficient 0.1 M hydrochloric acid to produce 1000.0 ml. Transfer 3.0 ml to a 1000 ml volumetric flask and dilute to volume with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid.

**Copper Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Cu):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.393 percent w/v solution of cupric sulfate to 100 volumes with water.

**Digitoxin Standard Solution; Digitoxin Reagent:**Dissolve 0.125 g of digitoxin RS in sufficient glacial acetic acid to produce 100.0 ml. Dilute 4.0 ml of this solution to 100.0 ml with glacial acetic acid. To 25.0 ml of the resulting solution add 3.0 ml of water and mix well.

**Digoxin Standard Solution:**Dissolve 0.125 g of digoxin RS in sufficient glacial acetic acid to produce 100.0 ml. Dilute 4.0 ml of this solution to 100.0 ml with glacial acetic acid. To 25.0 ml of the resulting solution add 3.0 ml of water and mix well.

**Formaldehyde Standard Solution (5 ppm CH**Dilute 1 volume of a solution containing 3.0 g of formaldehyde solution in 1000.0 ml to 200 volumes with water.

_{2}O):**Iron Standard Solution (2 ppm Fe):**Dilute 1 volume of iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) to 10 volumes with water.

**Iron Standard Solution (8 ppm Fe):**Dilute 4 volumes of iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) to 100 volumes with water.

**Iron Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Fe):**Dissolve 7.022 g of ferrous ammonium sulfate in water containing 25 ml of 1M sulphuric acid and add sufficient water to produce 1000.0 ml. Dilute 1 volume to 100 volumes with water. Contains iron in ferrous state.

**Iron Standard Solution (20 ppm Fe):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.1726 percent w/v solution of ferric ammonium sulfate in 0.05 M sulphuric acid to 10 volumes with water. Contains iron in ferric state.

**Lead Standard Solution:**On the day of use, dilute 10 ml of lead nitrate stock solution with water to 100 ml. 1 ml of lead standard solution contains the equivalent of 10 µg of lead. A control comparison solution prepared with 2.0 ml of lead standard solution contains when compared to a solution representing 1.0 g of the substance under examination, the equivalent of 20 ppm of lead.

**Lead Standard Solution (1 ppm Pb):**Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (10 ppm Pb) to 10 volumes with water.

**Lead Standard Solution (2 ppm Pb):**Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (10 ppm Pb) to 5 volumes with water.

**Lead Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Pb):**Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (100 ppm Pb) to 10 volumes with water.

**Lead Standard Solution (20 ppm Pb):**Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (100 ppm Pb) to 5 volumes with water.

**Lead Standard Solution (100 ppm Pb):**Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (0.1 percent Pb) to 10 volumes with water.

**Lead Standard Solution (0.1 percent Pb):**Dissolve 0.4 g of lead nitrate in water containing 2 ml of nitric acid and add sufficient water to produce 250.0 ml.

**Nickel Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Ni):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.478 percent w/v solution of nickel sulfate to 100 volumes with water.

**Nitrate Standard Solution (2 ppm N03):**Dilute 1 volume of nitrate standard solution (100 ppm NOJ) to 50 volumes with water.

**Nitrate Standard Solution (100 ppm N03):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.163 percent w/v solution of potassium nitrate to 10 volumes with water.

**Phosphate Standard Solution (5 ppm P04):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.143 percent w/v solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to 200 volumes with water.

**Silver Standard Solution (5 ppm Ag):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.079 percent w/v solution of silver nitrate to 100 volumes with water.

**Sulphate Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm S04):**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.181 percent w/v solution of potassium sulfate in distilled water to 100 volumes with the same solvent.

**Sulphate Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm S04), Ethanolic:**Dilute 1 volume of a 0.181 percent w/v solution of potassium sulfate in ethanol (30 percent) to 100 volumes with ethanol (30 percent).

**Tin Standard Solution (5 ppm Sn):**Dissolve 0.5 g of tin in a mixture of 5 ml of water and 25 ml of hydrochloric acid and add sufficient water to produce 1000.0 ml. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100 volumes with a 2.5 percent v/v solution of hydrochloric acid.

**Zinc Standard Solution**

**(10**

**ppm Zn):**Dilute 1 volume of zinc standard solution (100 ppm Zn) to 10 volumes with water.

**Zinc Standard Solution (25 ppm Zn):**Dilute 25 volumes of zinc standard solution (100 ppm Zn) to 100 volumes with water.

**Zinc Standard Solution (100 ppm Zn):**Dissolve 0.440 g of zinc sulfate in water containing 1 ml of 5M acetic acid and add sufficient water to produce 100.0 ml.

Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 10 volumes with water immediately before use.

Also see: Determination of Shelf Life of Solutions in Laboratory

Also see: Determination of Shelf Life of Solutions in Laboratory

Please explain me how to calculate standard solutions

ReplyDeleteThese are given above. Dissolve the compound and dilute as stated.

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