Wastewater Treatment Process (Effluent Treatment) : Pharmaceutical Guidelines

Wastewater Treatment Process (Effluent Treatment)

Learn how to treat the waste water or effluent from pharmaceutical using biological and chemical process
Pharmaceutical wastewater contains about 99.99% of water and 0.01% of other materials in the form of dissolved solids. Generally, the pharmaceutical wastewater contains pharmaceutical drugs (API and Excipients) from production, chemicals and solvents from quality control and oil and grease from utility and maintenance.

It is necessary to treat the wastewater and purify to a recommended level because pharmaceutical wastewater pollutants are the great source of water pollution. 

Wastewater Treatment
Waste Water Treatment
Wastewater in pharmaceutical is treated in the following manner
Preliminary Treatment: The wastewater is passed through the bar screen chamber, where a fine bar screen is provided to remove the floating particles from the wastewater. The Water is collected in the collection tank.


Aeration: Now collected water is aerated by blowing air through air blower for 24 hours. After aeration, the water is transferred to the neutralization tank.

Neutralization: In neutralization tank pH of wastewater is adjusted between 6 to 7 by adding aluminum bisulphate or lime solution. If effluent is acidic then add the lime solution (2.0 kg lime in 100 lit. of water) and if the effluent is basic then add aluminum bisulphate solution (2.0 kg aluminum in 100 lit. of water) to maintain the pH. Transfer the effluent to settling tank.

Flocculation and coagulation: The flocculating agent is added to the effluent to flocculate the suspended material. Alum is widely used as a flocculating agent in water treatment plants. Alum solution is added to the continuous mixing by aeration. Polyelectrolyte solution is also added to coagulate the flock of the suspended materials in the form of sludge at the bottom of the tank. The concentration of both solutions depends upon the suspended material in the effluent. Effluent is transferred to the septic tank.


Biological Degradation: Nutrients are added to the septic tank for the proper growth of bacteria that degrade the organic matter of the effluent. Urea and diammonium phosphate solution is added and aerated for 24 hours and transferred to settling tank. Sludge is separated from the settling tank and the water is filtered through the activated carbon filter.

Filtration: Treated effluent is then passed through the activated carbon filter to remove coloring material and find the clear water.

Treated water is then analyzed for the required quality. Following is the specification for the treated wastewater that can be used for irrigation.

S.No.
Parameter
Limit
1
pH
6.5 – 8.0
2
Suspended Solids
100 mg/lit.
3
TDS
2100 mg/lit.
4
COD
250 mg/lit.
5
BOD
100 mg/lit.
6
Oil & Grease
10 mg/lit.





Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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