Dead Leg and its Limit in Water Systems : Pharmaceutical Guidelines

Dead Leg and its Limit in Water Systems

Dead leg calculation in water system piping and their limits according to world health organization (WHO).
Water system in pharmaceuticals may the source of contamination for the manufactured products. It is necessary to prevent the water system from the microbial contamination.

Water is distributed through the pipelines throughout the manufacturing plant. Purified water and water for injection (WFI) is continuously circulated in circulating loop. It helps the water system to prevent the formation of biofilms

Dead LegBut there is some space between the circulation loop and the valve at the user points. This section of stagnant water is known as Dead Leg.


Long dead legs will have more stagnant water having more microbial growth because water in the dead leg does not circulate with circulating water. Therefore dead legs should be short. 

According to WHO: TRS 929 (Page 54), dead-leg should not be more than 1.5 times of internal diameter (ID) of the pipe. Nowadays no dead leg pipelines are installed to solve the water staging problems in water systems.



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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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