Principle of UV Spectrophotometer : Pharmaguideline

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Principle of UV Spectrophotometer

Know about the principle and working of UV spectrophotometer used in analysis of different pharmaceutical products.
The operation of the UV Spectrophotometer is that corresponds to the Beer-Lambert law. The larger the quantity of molecules there are that can absorb light means that said light can expand and flow to give more illumination. The measurement and function of the UV spectrophotometer work collectively and can be studied together. Below are the six main components conducive to the spectrophotometer principle.

1. Light Source: Hydrogen-Deuterium lamps with Tungsten filament lamps are more commonly used and the ideal light source as they expand to immerse the entire UV region. The Tungsten lamps exude red radiations to the point of 375 nm, in contrast, the degree of the Hydrogen-Deuterium is less than 375 nm.

2. Monochromator: Monochromators consist of prisms and slits. Spectrophotometers have dual beams in itself. The light emanating from the main source is distributed by the aid of circling prisms.

The multiple wavelengths of the illumination divided by the prisms are picked up by the slits, thus the turning of the prism causes increased and constant wavelengths to be transmitted within the slots, enabling recording. The beam chosen by the slit is single colored and multiplied twice by another prism.

3. Sample and Reference Cells: Only one of the two beams goes in the sample solution, the other beam is transmitted to the reference solution. Both the beams are held in the cells. The cells are composed of silica or quartz. Glass is unsuitable for the use of cell creation as it is also soaked in UV light.

4. Detector: Ultimately, two cells are necessary to the function of the detector in UV spectroscopy. The first photocell takes in the beam from the sample cell and the other detector takes in the beam in the reference. The strength of illumination from the reference cell supersedes the beam from the sample cell causing movement or repetitive turns in the photocells.

5. Amplifier: The constant current oscillating in the photocells is transmitted to an amplifier. This is attached to a mini servomotor. Usually, the movement created within the photocells is at a minimum, the outlying goal of the amplifier is to increase the volume of the signals multiple times enabling us to get strong, reliable recordable signals.

6. Recording Devices: The amplifier is combined with a pen recorder which is attached to a computer. This is the tiny device that resembles a small microphone. The computer retains and keeps all the information given and turns it all over creating the blend of the sound intensity desired.

This knowledge breaks down the function of how sound is contained, amplified, transmitted and directed to give us the ultimate sound quality we expect during recording. Understanding the system and being able to follow it section by section, teaches us how we can best use these components to our advantage. 

These basic principles of electronic spectroscopy take us through the average state to the more intricate state by providing an inside look of how sound is filtered. Absorbed UV radiation energy is the same as the differences between ground energy and high energy.

Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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