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Different Techniques of Analysis

Analytics plays a key role in every stage of drug development, from product development to marketing and promotion.
Analytics plays a key role in every stage of drug development, from product development to marketing and promotion. Understanding the physical and chemical stability of the drug can facilitate the selection and design of the dosage form, finding impurities with the required level of toxicity above, and assessing the concentration of these impurities in marketed products to differentiate them from the API.

Below you will find examples of pharmaceutical analysis techniques:
Titrimetric techniques
A titrometer measures the volume of titrant reacting stoichiometrically with a titrated to determine the analyte concentration in a test sample. A point of equivalence corresponds to the volume of titrant that is consumed during this stoichiometric reaction. The experimental endpoint is determined by titrating a solution with a color-changing indicator near equivalence. The endpoint may also be determined by continuously monitoring one or more properties of the titrant's solution as the titration continues, such as its absorbance, potential, or temperature.

The endpoint must match the equivalence point closely in both cases to produce a valid result. To evaluate a titrimetric method's feasibility, it is essential to know the shape of the titration curve. Titrators often perform direct titrations, where the analyte takes part as the titrant or as the titrant. If it is not feasible for the analyte and the titrant to react directly, other titration strategies can be used. The analyte is added to a solution of reagent in excess during a back titration. When a reagent has completely reacted with an analyte, it is titrated to measure how much excess reagent remains. In displacement titrations, analytes displace reagents from a complex, and titration with an appropriate reagent determines the amount of displaced reagent.

The titrimetric method of redox has additionally been developed as well as acid-base, complexation, and precipitation. As a titrant, strong acids or bases are used in acid-base titrations. To conduct a titration of complexation, EDTA is used most commonly. In redox titrations, oxidizing agents are usually used as titrants because they are stable against air oxidation. Alternatively, reducing agents can be used. Ag+ is often used as an analyte or titrant in precipitation titrations.

Chromatographic techniques
Chromatography is a biophysical technique that can be used for qualitative or quantitative analysis to separate, identify, and purify components of mixtures. Using variables like size and shape, charge, surface hydrophobicity, binding capacity, and surface hydrophobicity, one can purify proteins in several different ways. Molecular characteristics and interaction types are used to design four different types of separation techniques: ion exchange, surface adsorption, partitioning, and size exclusion. Besides column chromatography, there are also thin layer and paper chromatography methods using a stationary bed. Among the most common methods of purifying proteins is column chromatography.

Spectroscopic technique
Light interacts with matter in spectroscopic techniques, which can be used to learn about a sample's structure or consistency by analyzing its characteristics. Different molecules exhibit different molecular features depending on the kind of light they receive. Light exhibits different energies due to its electromagnetic nature. Understanding electromagnetic radiation's properties and its interactions with matter are important for understanding the variety of spectra, hence the methods for analyzing spectra, and their applications to biological problems.

Electrochemical methods
It is a technique that employs electricity to analyze reactivity in a chemical system. An oxidation or reduction reaction is defined as the process in which electrons are lost or gained. Redox reactions provide crucial information about kinetics, concentration, chemical status, and mechanism of reactions in a solution related to oxidation and reduction reactions.

In addition to analyzing neurotransmitter metabolism and polymerization reactions, electrochemical analysis is very useful in many other areas. Since electrochemistry analyses a set of parameters other than spectroscopy, it is different from spectroscopy.

Kinetic methods of analysis
A kinetic analysis measures the concentration of an analyte by measuring its rate of chemical or physical transformation. Kinetic methods fall into three types: chemical kinetic, radiochemical, and flow injection.

Chemo kinetics allows you to use integrated or differential rate laws to determine the rate of a chemical reaction. Analytes or substances stoichiometrically related to analytes are measured at various locations, after the reaction has begun, using the stoichiometric integral method. Chemokinetic methods are particularly useful in the analysis of reactions with slow speeds that cannot be measured by other methods. In addition to analyzing enzymes and their substrates, chemistry kinetic methods can be used to characterize enzyme catalysis.

Analyzing radioactive elements using radiochemistry is based on the radioactive decay of isotopes. The radiation decay rate is a method of determining the concentration of radioactive isotopes in a sample by directly measuring their decay rate.

Samples are injected into a stream of reagents that merge with a flowing carrier stream in flow injection analysis. Samples that travel with an indirect carrier stream react with concomitant carriers and additional reagent streams, as well as undergo dispersion.

Electrophoretic methods
In electrophoresis, a charged particle moves from one place to another under the influence of an electric field. The majority of important biological molecules, including amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleotides, and nucleic acids, have ionizable groups and, therefore, exist in solution with electrical charges either as cations (+) or anions (−). The net charge of these charged particles influences whether the particles migrate to the cathode or the anode, depending on the influence of an electric field.
Flow injection and sequential injection analysis

FIA/SIA systems allow the analysis of flow injection and sequential injection of chemical/biochemical reactions automatically with minimal volume and time consumption. It is possible to build or adapt several parts of the system, such as pumps, valves, and reactors, from available materials. In comparison to other instrumentation-based systems, the systems are therefore relatively inexpensive. There have been several applications of these technologies for detecting liver diseases, however, only a select few and limited types of biomarkers have been used in studies as model analytes.

Hyphenated techniques
In hyphenated techniques, a chromatographic technique is combined with a spectroscopic or spectrophotometric technique for the analysis of various types of biological, chemical, or toxicological samples. In addition to proteins, immunogens, drugs, poisons, adulterants, toxins, dyes, and even explosives, these fortes are essential to the analysis of various biologic and toxicological substances.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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