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Eutectic Mixtures, Gases and Aerosols– Inhalers

Eutectic mixtures, Eutectic mixtures in pharmaceutical applications, Gasses, Medical gases delivery, Aerosol's inhalers, Aerosols and human health.

Eutectic mixtures

Chemical compounds are created when two or more components do not interact with each other during the reaction. However, at certain ratios, the components inhibit one another's crystallization resulting in a chemical compound with a lower melting point than either of its constituents. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), APIs and excipients (APIs and excipients), or APIs and inactive ingredients can be used in eutectic mixtures in the pharmaceutical industry; as a result, a wide array of applications exists.

The following factors are typically involved in the formation of eutectic mixtures:

When in liquid form, the components should be miscible whereas, in solid form, they should be immiscible.

A contact-induced melting point depression can only occur when eutectic forming materials are in close contact.

A component needs a chemical group that can interact to form a physical bond, like hydrogen bonding between molecules, etc.

Using a modified version of VantHoff's equation, eutectic mixtures can be formed.

In chemistry, a mixture of substances soluble in one another in liquid form is deemed eutectic because it liquefies at the lowest temperature among all such mixtures. The temperature at which the solid form of one component begins to separate from the liquid form of the other is reached when a liquid mixture of such substances is cooled arbitrarily to a specific temperature and this separation will continue to occur as the temperature is reduced. The remaining liquid becomes increasingly richer in the remaining component as it separates until it eventually reaches a point at which both substances as intimate mixtures of solids begin to separate simultaneously. A liquid with the eutectic composition will not separate solids until it reaches the eutectic temperature, then the solids will separate in the same proportions as that in the liquid, but the composition of the liquid, the deposited solid, and the temperature remain unchanged.

Eutectic mixtures in pharmaceutical applications

Compatibility studies between APIs and excipients are conducted at the pre-formulation stage to help determine which excipients are suitable. Molecular compatibility tests can help anticipate the possibility of physical incompatibility between molecules of drug and excipient. It is common during the drug development and delivery process to use eutectic mixtures in the drug delivery process. The formation of eutectic is extremely important to anticipate during the manufacture of pharmaceutical dosage forms and to avoid manufacturing problems if any occur. When tablet powder compacts are compressed, the heat produced in the cavity of the punch and die may cause the powder to fusion or melt, which leads to manufacturing defects.

It is thus important to understand how eutectic points relate to powder components to avoid such problems. In the process of pharmaceutical analysis, it is important to identify compounds with similar melting points by understanding eutectic mixtures. It is common for compounds with similar melting points to have different eutectic points if another component is present.

In chemistry, a mixture of substances soluble in one another in liquid form is deemed eutectic because it liquefies at the lowest temperature among all such mixtures.

Gasses

Medical gases and pharmaceutical gases are fluids used in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical industries. Processes or products that contribute to human health are commonly synthesized, sterilized, or insulated with these materials. The technique is known as gas therapy also involves the inhalation of pharmaceutical gases by the patient.

Legislation and industry standards dictate how gases used in human healthcare are regulated to ensure they do not compromise human health. As a matter of course, these gases are filtered to the highest possible standards, regardless of whether they are manufactured as pure gases or as compounds. Gases of this nature are produced and distributed depending on their application. Medicinal-grade gases can be used to create the following:

Medicines and pharmaceutical products are produced. This could happen when their synthesis is performed, sterilization is performed, the packaging is tested, or they are insulated from undesirable environmental effects such as oxidation.

A medical device's calibration can be performed using this gas, or a biopsy or culture can be exposed to this gas to observe its reaction.

When the gas is prescribed as a therapy, an anesthetic, drug delivery mechanism, or a remedy for an existing medical condition.

The regulation of air composition in environments requires controlled atmospheres.

When used to power surgical instruments and dental instruments.

Medical gases delivery

Regulatory agencies for prescription drugs demand that a jurisdiction's licensed medical gas manufacturers comply with quality standards. Gases used for medical purposes must be extremely pure, with at least 999.95 percent of the gas conforming to how it is identified. Because medical gases do not contain oxygen of similarly high quality, all gases are administered through the use of compressed gases cylinders made of metals such as aluminum, stainless steel, or other metals that are non-corrosive and nonreactive.

Aerosol's inhalers

Aerosols

Aerosols in medicine - Spray or mist of fine particles. The inhalation of aerosolized medications is made possible by nebulizers.

The majority of our atmosphere is composed of gases other than nitrogen and oxygen, with 78% of it being nitrogen and 21% being oxygen. The particulate matter (PM) in our atmosphere is comprised of liquid droplets and solid particles that are very small, similar to gaseous emissions. As small as they are, these particles play a crucial role in human health and the earth's climate, but they are so small that you usually cannot see them at first glance when you breathe the air around you.

The environment is described here makes it impossible for drops and solid particles to fall to the ground for a very long time, meaning they can remain suspended in the air for a very long time. Particles are known as aerosols because they are suspended in a gas. When you hear the word "aerosol," you might visualize a can of hairspray or a can of spray paint. Aerosol sprays are made when you release hairspray or paint from their cans, releasing droplets of liquid. Among the gases in our atmosphere, particulate matter (PM) is called an aerosol because it is suspended. Particulate matter is therefore called aerosol particles due to its physical properties. In general, particles can be found in a wide variety of sizes, but in general, they tend to be very, very small. The PM2.5 particles are those with a diameter of fewer than 2.5 micrometers (µm), and the PM10 particles are those with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometers.

Aerosols and human health

There are several health problems associated with aerosol particles. Over the world, pollution causes more people to suffer from respiratory problems due to particulate matter. Particle pollution is estimated to cause around 7 million premature deaths each year according to the World Health Organization (WHO). People's health is directly affected by particle size. It is generally not safe to inhale particles larger than 100 micrometers. Our bodies' "filters" - the mucous membranes in our respiratory system - are usually sufficient to stop particles between 10-100 µm from being inhaled. Particles smaller than 10 µm in size that can penetrate the lungs and reach deep inside the body are inhalable particles.

This group of particles poses the greatest health risks. Typically found near highways and factories, PM10 particles are 2.5-10 micrometers in diameter and breathable. Smoke and smog contain fine particles, which measure under 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5). Fine particles that are deposited in the alveoli reach the trachea, bronchioles, and bronchioles as they travel further into the lungs. Various health issues have been linked to particle pollution in scientific research, including:
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • People with heart disease and lung disease die prematurely
  • Aggravated asthma
  • Decrease in lung function
  • Inflammation of the airways, coughing, and breathing difficulties
  • Non-fatal heart attacks
As a result of the negative health effects associated with aerosol particles, the US Environmental Protection Agency has instituted National Ambient Air Quality Standards to limit the levels of fine and coarse particles in the ambient air. Daily air quality is reported using the AQI or Air Quality Index by the EPA. AQI ranges from 0-500. For each AQI number, a risk level is assigned. According to the concentration of each of these pollutants in the air, they are converted into AQI index numbers. A look at Table 1 illustrates the ranges of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and their corresponding AQI index numbers. AQI is calculated daily for every pollutant, and the AQI for the pollutant with the highest AQI is reported every day.


Aerosols are liquids or solids suspended in gases. The particles in the air that makeup smoke, mist, and fog are called aerosols. The process of mechanically generating aerosols involves making solutions, emulsions, or suspensions of liquids or solids in compressed or liquefied gases in a sealed container. A valve releases the gas (the propellant) into the atmosphere, producing an aerosol or aerogel (foam). An aerosol or pressurized product is a container that holds these mixtures under pressure.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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