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Neuron and Neuroglia

The neural cells ( called to be nerve cells) make up the nervous system and brain.


The neural cells ( called to be nerve cells) make up the nervous system and brain. In order to transmit motor commands to our muscles, sensory information from the environment is processed by our brains. Approximately 100 billion neurons are present in the brain, which are closely associated with cells called neuroglia (they can probably be neurons, but no one is sure). Children exhibit this behavior.

To compare a somatic cell to a tree might be useful. In the image below, the three very important components of a somatic cell are dendrites, axons, and the cell body, which could be thought of as the branches, roots, and trunk of a tree. Different cells communicate with somatic cells through nerve fibers (tree branches). A dendrite is a branch that grows and branches out more as it gets closer to the tip, resembling a leaf as it grows.

As an electrical charge travels along a nerve fiber, a somatic cell communicates with another neuron. The soma (tree trunk) contains the nucleus, the proteins, and the means by which they are transported through fibers and dendrites. There are a number of types of neurons in the brain and spinal cord. According to their origin, where they project, and what neurotransmitters they use, they're divided.

Concepts and definitions

Axon - It is a long, thin structure included in the generation of action potentials; it is part of the vegetative cell that transmits action potentials. When action potentials are initiated, they travel down axons and release neurochemicals.

Dendrites - An axon sends conjunction signals to dendrites, with the summing of these signals determining whether or not the vegetative cell can initiate a nerve impulse. During this procedure, a part of the vegetative cell is received.

Spine - There are several synapses along dendritic projections in the spine, the site of post synaptic communication.

Action potential - Electrical signals are transmitted to vegetative cells by the axon when they become active. An associated nerve impulse travels along the axon and releases neurochemicals along the way. As nerve impulses travel through vegetative cells and later unharnessed transmitters, vegetative cells communicate with other neurons.


In addition to supporting and scaffolding neurons, this protein is named after the Greek word meaning "glue." Connecting and supporting nervous system components might be fragile glial cells. Within the central canal and the ventricles of the brain, the membrane consists of columnar cells, while the rest of the membrane is made up of small cells with multiple processes, some of which branch, and others don't.

Both the central and peripheral nervous systems depend on interstitial tissue cells to protect and support neurons. Recent studies have shown that interstitial tissue is critical for the establishing and maintaining of junctions. Interstitial tissue was thought to play no role in neurotransmission until recently.

Neuroglia in the system

Neuroglia in the central nervous system consist of astrocytes, microglia, epithelia, and oligodendrocytes. In the human brain, our knowledge tells us that the overall number of neuroglia is roughly equal to the number of neurons, though the proportion varies between different brain regions.

Neuroglia of CNS

Cells in the interstitial tissues have a branching pattern that is angular in shape, known as stratocytes. Neurones and synaptic endings are contained in multiple diverging processes. There are astrocytes lining most of the capillaries in the system. They also provide support and bracing to the neurons in addition to anchoring nutrients. Axons and capillaries are also connected by them. Besides secreting neurotransmitters and maintaining the chemical environment of nerve cells, astrocytes also filter excessive ions.

They have short processes that can pierce neighboring neurons. Microglial cells measure little and have thorny surfaces. As microglia rework, they may become a form of scavenger cell that may clear up debris in the brain. In addition, police work injuries to the neuron can also be used to monitor the health of vegetative cells.

Another interstitial subtype are interstitial epithelial cells, which line the ventricles of the system, forming a barrier that prevents bodies fluid (CSF) from leaking onto underlying cells, in addition to promoting CSF circulation.

There are fewer processes on oligodendrocytes than on astrocytes, a comparison of the two cells shows. A thick layer of insulating material is formed by wrapping nerve fibers inside the system tightly.

Schwann cells and satellite cells make up the neurons in the PNS.

Axons in the PNS are myelinated by Schwann cells, much like the oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, they use phagocytosis to clear cellular debris, allowing neuron regrowth to take place.

A satellite cell functions exactly like an astrocyte, a tiny cell that surrounds neurons in the nervous system's sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia, processing chemical environmental information. It seems that they contribute to pathological conditions like chronic pain, as they are sensitive to injury and inflammation.

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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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