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State of Matter and Changes in the State of Matter

States of matter, Solid-state, Liquid state, Gaseous state, Changes in the state of matter etc.
Matter - Material objects are defined as anything with a mass, volume, and occupying space.

States of matter

Materials are classified as solid, liquid, or gaseous depending on their state. Usually, two factors determine in which state matter exists: temperature and composition. Intermolecular force intensity and temperature both affect intermolecular forces. The strongest intermolecular force occurs between solids, whereas the weakest occurs between gases.

Solid-state

There are tightly packed particles in a solid. Particles cannot freely move between each other, only vibrating due to the forces between them. In this way, a solid has a stable, distinct shape and volume. Shapes can only be altered by force, such as when a solid is broken or cut. The highest degree of order in which solid substances exist is arguably the most important property of the solid-state. These substances have high melting points because the molecules of a solid are bonded tightly together. This includes metallic bonds, ionic bonds, valence bonds, and molluscan bonds, in decreasing strength order. In the world of solids, there are two types of solids: crystallized solids and amorphous solids.

Liquid state

Fluids that conform to the shape of their containers but retain nearly constant volumes independent of pressure are called liquids. Depending on temperature and pressure, the volume will remain constant (i.e., will not change).

The matter may be considered an intermediate state between the solid and gaseous states as it goes from one to the other. Liquids can be viewed as highly compressed gases or as solids that have slightly released their pressure. Since the molecules of a gas move constantly due to their kinetic energy, which increases with their absolute temperature, gases are always in motion.

Gaseous state

Gas molecules can move quickly and freely because the bonds between them are weak or absent. Thus, gas is not only capable of conforming to the shape of its container, but it will also be able to fill the container with gas.

It does not matter the chemical nature of the molecules how gaseous molecules behave. Since almost all gases respond similarly to changes in pressure, temperature, or volume, the theory holds that they all respond the same way. The molecules in a gas are always moving vigorously and rapidly, which means that they create random paths, collide with one another, as well as with the wall of the container in which they are enclosed. The entire space of the container is occupied by these items, which exerts pressure on the container's walls.

According to the ideal gases equation, gases behave in general when pressure, volume, and temperature are varied.

PV = NRT for ‘n’ moles of ideal gas

Where,
Pressure is P,
The volume is v,
N = moles represent the number of molecules of gas,
R is the gas constant, and T represents its absolute temperature.

Changes in the state of matter

A state change is possible when the matter is heated or cooled. Water (a liquid) is formed by heating ice (a solid). Melting is the process of this change. Heat changes water into steam (a gas). It is referred to as boiling. Water, steam, and ice contain identical particles, but they exist in different arrangements.

The solid state can be changed into a liquid state by melting and the liquid state can be converted into a solid-state by freezing. The sublimation of solids can also transform them directly into gases.

Adding constant pressure while heating a liquid to its boiling point can transform it into a gas, or reducing pressure while decreasing temperature can transform a liquid into a gas. A liquid is changed into a gas through the process of evaporation.

Solid substances attain sufficient energy to pass from a solid-state to a liquid state when their temperature is raised. When the temperature is increased further, the molecules become gaseous. Almost no intermolecular forces exist in a gaseous state.

A solid change into a liquid, then into a gaseous state, absorbing warmth from the surrounding environment and increasing its temperature.

It is the enthalpy of a liquid that exceeds that of a solid, and the enthalpy of a gas that exceeds that of this liquid. Likewise, as the substance oxidizes into a liquid and becomes a gas, its entropy (degree of molecular randomness) increases.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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