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Structural and Functional Classification, Types of Joints Movements and Its Articulation

Anatomical and functional classification of joints, the bodies of animals are made up of a multitude of joints, which allow movement and stability.
Anatomical and functional classification of joints, the bodies of animals are made up of a multitude of joints, which allow movement (such as limb's motion) and stability (such as the skull's stability). Anatomically, joints can be classified either by their physical structure or by their functional purpose. Depending on the material that composes the joint and whether a cavity exists in the joint, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints are classified as structurally different. There are three categories of joints classified in a functional classification: synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthrosis.

Fibrous joints
In fibrous joints, connective tissue holds the bones in place. There is no space or cavity between the bones in fibrous joints, and thus they don't move at all. Joints made up of fibrous tissue can be categorized as sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphosis. There are only sutures in the skull, which are short fibers of connective tissue that hold the skull bones tightly together.

There are syndesmoses in which the bones are linked by connective tissue, allowing for greater movement than sutures. As an example - A syndesmosis can be seen at the ankle in the joint between the tibia and fibula. Connecting tissues are made up of fibers that have varying lengths that determine how much movement these joints can achieve. Known scientifically as a gomphosis, they occur between teeth and their sockets and are characterized by their peg-like fitting into the socket. For a tooth to function properly, it must be supported by a periodontal ligament, a type of oral connective tissue. A synarthrosis is an immovable fibrous joint, which includes sutures, gomphosis, and synchondroses.

Cartilaginous joints
These joints contain cartilage, which binds the bones together. Joints made up of cartilage are synchondroses and symphyses. A synchondrosis occurs when cartilage connects two bones. Growing children have synchondroses in their epiphyseal plates. The symphysis is covered with hyaline cartilage, but the connections between bones are made of fibrocartilage. Between vertebrae and in the pubic area, symphyses are located. A cartilaginous joint that only allows slight movement is an amphiarthrosis; therefore, any cartilaginous joint can be an amphiarthrosis.

Synovial joints
Joints with a synovial space are the only ones that have a space between the adjacent bones. Essentially, synovial fluid fills the cavity of the joint, also known as the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid minimizes friction between the bones and increases movement inside the joints by lubricating the surfaces. Osteoarthritis is characterized by painful joints caused by arthritic cartilage. An articular capsule, made up of connective tissue surrounding the joint, surrounds it. An articular capsule helps the joint move freely and prevents it from dislocating. As well as containing ligaments, some articular capsules have bones that connect. A synovial joint can move most of all structural joints, but it is weaker, so the more mobile the joint, the weaker it is. In addition to knees, elbows, and shoulders, the synovial system also includes the appendages of the bone. Since synovial joints allow for an extended range of motion, they are considered diarthrosis.

Synovial Joint Movement
In synovial joints, you can glide, turn, and rotate among other different kinds of movement. Various degrees of movement is possible in synovial joints. There are many different types of movements in nature, including glides, rotations, angular movements, and special movements.

Gliding movement
The movement of relatively flat-surfaced bones results in gliding movements. The bones are rarely rotated or angularly displaced during these movements. Gliding movements are produced by joints such as those found in the wrist and a tarsal bone.

Angular movement
Changes in the angle between bones of a joint are responsible for the creation of angular movements. Angular movements include not just flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction but also several other types. Bending or flexion is characterized by a reduction of the angle between bones. An example of flexion is when the forearm is moved upward at the elbow or when the wrist is moved to allow forearm movement. Extending a joint means increasing the angle between its bones, the opposite of flexing, when a limb is extended, it is straightened after having been flexed.

Physiologists refer to hyperextension as a deviation from the normal anatomical position. In other words, you can tilt your head back and look upward, or bend your wrist so that your hand is no longer facing your forearm. Abstraction refers to the movement of a bone away from the body's center. You can abduct your arms or legs by moving them laterally and lifting them out directly to the side. When a bone is positioned adducted about the midline of the body, it is referred to as adduction. Adduction is the inward movement of the limbs following the abduction. Using a circular motion, circumduction means moving a limb in a circular manner, such as waving an arm around.

Rotational movement
Rotational movement refers to the movement of bones as they rotate around their longitudinal axis. The lateral rotation of the body is the rotation away from the midline, whereas the rotation toward the midline is the rotation toward the midline. The head alternates from side to side during rotation.

Special movement
The movement that does not fit into any of the former categories is called a special movement. Whenever you face your feet inwards toward your midline, they are inverted. Foot movement of an eversion is the opposite of an inversion, in which the foot is positioned away from the midline. Protraction is what happens when a bone moves anteriorly in a horizontal plane. Retraction is the return of a joint to its original position after protraction. As the jaw is protracted and retracted, it will move outwards and then back inwards as it is thrust outwards and then pulled inwards. A bone is elevated when it moves upward, such as when shoulders are shrugged, or scapulae are raised. As the scapulae descend from an elevated position after being shrugged, depression involves coming into contact with the scapulae and moving the bone downward.

The Dorsiflexion effect is the lifting of the toes toward the knee caused by bending the ankle. Whenever the heel is raised, such as when standing on the toes, the ankle undergoes plantar flexion. The supination movement is a motion of the radius and ulna bones that causes the palm to face up or forward. When the palm faces downward or backward, it is pronation, the opposite movement. The thumb moves in opposition to the fingers in the same hand, enabling the finger to grasp or hold items.

Synovial Joint Types
Plans, hinges, pivots, condyloid, saddles and ball-and-socket joints are some of the synovial joints that can be moved. In addition, synovial joints can also be classified into six subcategories based on their shape and structure. In joints, the type of movements and types of motions permitted by the joint is influenced by its shape. The ball-and-socket joints belong to the same category as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and condyloid joints.

Planar joints
The bones on which planar joints rest have flat or lightly curved articulating surfaces. The gliding joint is a type of joint that enables swiveling movements, which is why it is sometimes referred to as gliding. They provide a limited range of motion with no rotation involved. The hand and foot's carpal bones and tarsal bones, as well as the joints between vertebrae, are examples of joints that form the plane.

Hinge joints
Hinge joints consist of one bone with a slightly rounded end fitting into the other bone with a somewhat hollow end. Thus, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, much like a hinge on a door. Hinges are a type of joint found on the elbow. It is sometimes called a knee because it is a hinge joint modified.

Pivot joints
An ankle joint is formed when one bone's rounded end fits into a ring formed by another bone. By rotating the rounded bone around its axis, the structure permits rotational movement. The pivot joint between the first vertebra and the second vertebra of the neck is an example of a pivot joint. An additional pivot joint is the joint in the wrist where the hand's palm is turned up and down.

Condyloid joints
Joints composed of condyloid have an oval end on one bone corresponding to an oval hollow on another. Ellipsoidal joints are also sometimes called condyloid joints. The wrist and fingertips, for example, have joints that can move both above and below as well as side-to-side.

Saddle joints
The concave and convex portions of each bone in a saddle joint fit together like the edges of a saddle. A saddle joint allows similar angles of movement as a condyloid joint, but it offers a wider range of motion. In contrast with the wrists and fingers, a saddle joint can move up and down as well as back and forth.

Ball and socket joints
An example of a ball and socket joint is found in the human body in which one bone has rounded ends that fit into the socket of another bone. Having all types of movements possible in all directions makes this organization the most flexible. Hips and shoulders are ball-and-socket joints.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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