Functions of Male and Female Reproductive System and Sex Hormones : Pharmaguideline

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Functions of Male and Female Reproductive System and Sex Hormones

Functions of the Female Reproductive System, Vulva, Vagina, Uterus, Fallopian tubes, Ovaries, Female sex hormones, Progesterone, Oestrogen.

Functions of the Male Reproductive System

All aspects of male reproduction are regulated by hormones. The activity of the cells or organs is stimulated or regulated by a chemical. The female reproductive system is controlled by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. In addition to FSH and LH, the pituitary gland produces several hormones. Your brain has an area called the basal ganglia, which performs many functions within your body. The FSH hormone promotes the production of sperm (spermatogenesis). Continuing spermatogenesis requires the production of testosterone, which is stimulated by LH. As well as being important to the development of male characteristics, testosterone is also central to the development of muscle mass, strength, fat distribution, and bone mass.

A male reproductive system is composed of multiple organs, each of which performs a different function that aids in reproduction when combined. Several functions are performed within the male reproductive system to facilitate reproduction.
  • Male sex hormones are produced and secreted
  • responsible for producing sperm and semen
  • Semen is transported into the female reproductive system
To maintain the reproductive health of men, the male reproductive system produces androgens, including testosterone, which support spermatogenesis and enable fertilization in females. It is within the testes that androgen is produced and the sperm is transported. Both these functions are carried out by the testes, thus acting as endocrine and exocrine organs.

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

Female reproductive systems consist of several different parts. Let us explore each of them.


The vulva performs the following functions:
  • Ensure the protection of the internal reproductive system of women (labia majora and minora)
  • Arousal and stimulation of sexual desire (clitoris)
  • Provide lubrication, such as the Bartholin's glands, and cushioning, such as the mons pubis, to facilitate sex
It is also in the vulva where the female urethra is located. This is a hollow tube that releases urine.


Among the functions of the vagina are:
  • Playing with a toy or erecting his penis during sex
  • that acts as a birth canal when giving birth
  • allowing your menstrual blood to exit the body during periods


During pregnancy, the uterus provides support to the developing egg and receives the fertilized egg. The female reproductive system includes the uterus as one of its most prominent organs. When pregnant and giving birth, it is very important. This membrane is known as the endometrium and lines the uterus. Based on the level of various hormones during the menstrual cycle, the thickness of this lining may vary. When estrogen and progesterone levels rise in the body during a woman's cycle, the lining of her uterus thickens. A fertilized egg is nurtured while in the uterus during pregnancy by this process. Upon failure to fertilize, the egg begins to decompose. Progesterone and estrogen levels also fall. Your period is when the egg and the endometrium leave your body. If sperm fertilizes an egg, the egg is implanted into the uterine lining and began to develop. The uterus grows many times bigger than normal during pregnancy. It is estimated that a pregnant woman's uterus can increase by one centimeter during pregnancy. A woman's uterus contracts during childbirth. These contractions dilate the cervix and allow the baby to be delivered more easily.

Fallopian tubes

From the ovaries to the uterus, the egg travels through the fallopian tubes. The egg moves toward the uterus as smooth muscles contract and the cilia beat rhythmically. This is when fertilization takes place.


Ovaries release eggs as their primary function. You have all the eggs you will release during your lifetime in your ovaries when you are born. In the process of ovulation, the ovaries release an egg every month. Female sex hormones are also produced in the ovaries, which regulate the woman's cycle and pregnancy. Estrogen and progesterone are some of these hormones.

Functions of sex hormones

Reproduction and sexual development are influenced by sex hormones. Gonadal hormones are mainly made by the adrenal glands and the gonads. They are generally responsible for:
  • Puberty
  • Regulating hair growth
  • Body fat distribution
  • Reproduction and sexual development
  • Inflammatory responses
  • Regulating cholesterol levels
Throughout life, the level of sex hormones fluctuates. The fluctuation of hormones can lead to health issues such as infertility, hair loss, and bone loss. Many factors affect hormone levels. Among them are:
  • Stress
  • Menstruation
  • Age
  • Menopause
  • Medications

Female sex hormones

Sexual hormones are released by the adrenal glands and ovaries in females. Women produce progesterone, estrogen, and a small amount of testosterone as sex hormones.


Adrenal glands, ovaries, and the placenta are all responsible for producing progesterone. A higher level of progesterone is present during ovulation and pregnancy. In addition, progesterone is responsible for stabilizing the menstrual cycle and preparing the body to become pregnant. In women with low levels of progesterone, their menstrual cycle is upset and they experience complications during pregnancy.


Ovaries release estrogen throughout the body. Neither the adrenal glands nor fat cells release large quantities of estrogen. Estrogen is essential to the development of sexual and reproductive functions during puberty.


It is very rare for women to produce any testosterone. There is a connection between the condition and RBC production, fertility, menstruation, and bone and tissue density.

Male sex hormones

Sexual development and reproduction are influenced by testosterone, a male sex hormone. It is a type of male hormone called androgen, which is also known as an asteroid. The adrenal glands produce very little hormone, while the testes produce the majority of it. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus are responsible for producing testosterone. As well as developing male sex organs during puberty, it also plays a key role in the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. As we age, our testosterone levels decline. Irritability, depression, low sperm count, and shrink testes are all side effects.

Functions of sex hormones

The following functions are performed by sexual hormones:

Sex hormones at puberty

Boys and girls both experience many changes in their bodies during puberty. During adolescence, we experience many changes, including the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Throughout the endocrine system, chemicals from endocrine glands are released into the bloodstream. The hormones are released into the bloodstream through the endocrine system. They cause the body to change during puberty. The ovaries and testes of males and females mature during adolescence. Mature gonads (sex organs) start secreting hormones. Sexual hormones are responsible for the secretion of these hormones. Females and males undergo hormonal changes during puberty as well as develop secondary sexual characteristics. It is at this time that males begin to develop facial hair and hair growth in the pubic region and chest. Females begin menstruating during puberty, when they develop mammary glands. Pituitary glands are responsible for regulating sex hormone secretion.

Reproductive hormones in the initiation of reproduction

An endocrine gland directly releases hormones into the bloodstream. Depending on the level of a particular hormone, our body may behave differently. As a result, hormones are secreted according to the body's needs. Hormones are regulated by feedback mechanisms. A target organ (the site to which a hormone is directed) is the organ to which the hormone is directed. The hormone action and the target sites correspond; hormones have a highly specific action. As a result of hormone action on the target site, we undergo reproductive changes.
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