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Role of RAS in Kidney and Disorders of Kidney

Chronic kidney disease, Kidney stones, Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease, Urinary tract infections

Role of RAS in kidney

As a key regulator of intrarenal hemodynamic, glomerular filtration, fluid and electrolytes homeostasis, and glomerular filtration, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) possess crucial functions in the kidney. In the current system, six components act through receptors. Two enzymes, renin, and prorenin communicate with the renin and prorenin receptors to produce four peptides, Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Ang III, and Ang IV. In addition to regulating blood pressure, Angiotensin II alters glomerular filtration, fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis, thus regulating blood pressure and maintaining fluid balance.

As the concentration of Ang II increased, direct actions of Ang II on sodium and water transport were observed, which were related to diuretic/antidiuretic and natriuretic/Anti natriuretic actions. The angiotensin (1-7) complex may also affect the glomerular filtration rate without altering blood pressure. Although heptapeptides were found to have a biphasic direct action on sodium and water tubular transport, the specific receptors responsible for the transmission of their tubular action remain unclear. Angiotensin III and Angiotensin IV have both been shown to exert natriuretic properties; however, the pressor properties of both peptides are not clear. Tubular transport is not yet proven to be mediated by renin and prorenin receptors.

Disorders of kidneys

The kidneys, a small organ about the size of a fist, are located below the rib cage. Each kidney is located on either side of the spine. Well-functioning kidneys keep our bodies healthy. This type of filter mostly removes excess water, waste, and other impurities. The bladder stores these toxins, which are then excreted through urination. pH, potassium, salt, and sodium levels are also controlled by the kidneys. The purpose of these molecules is to regulate blood pressure and the production of red blood cells. Additionally, kidneys help the body absorb calcium by activating a form of vitamin D. When your kidneys are damaged and unable to function properly, you suffer from this disease. Chronic (long-term) conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol can cause damage. In addition to weak bones and nerve damage, kidney disease can cause malnutrition and other health complications. If the condition continues to worsen, your kidneys may eventually cease to function. As a result, kidney function will have to be performed through dialysis. An artificially purified blood is filtered and cleaned using dialysis. However, kidney disease is not cured through this surgery.

Chronic kidney disease

Among kidney illnesses, chronic renal disease is the most common. A person with chronic kidney disease, who does not get better with time, can only receive dialysis as a treatment. Chronic renal disease is usually caused by high blood pressure. Because it puts pressure on the glomeruli, high blood pressure can injure the kidneys. A glomerulus is a tiny blood artery in the kidney that is in charge of blood cleansing. These vessels begin to deteriorate as a result of the increased pressure and kidney function declines. Eventually, the kidneys will stop working correctly and will be unable to execute their functions. An individual would need dialysis in this case. During dialysis, wastes and extra fluids are removed from the blood. Despite its benefits, dialysis cannot cure kidney disease. Another treatment option may be a kidney transplant, depending on your situation. Diabetes is also one of the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. It is a group of diseases in which blood sugar levels are high. When blood sugar levels are high, kidney blood vessels weaken over time. If the blood can't be cleaned properly, this leads to kidney failure. Toxin buildup in the body can be the cause of renal failure.

Kidney stones

Most people experience kidney stones at some point in their lives. The kidneys form solid masses (stones) when minerals and different substances from the blood crystallize. They are usually passed through the urine. Although kidney stones can be painful to pass, they rarely pose major health risks.

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis affects the glomerulus. Within the kidneys, there are very small structures called glomeruli that filter the blood. Infections, drugs, and congenital abnormalities (conditions occurring before birth or shortly after birth) can cause glomerulonephritis. Typically, the condition improves on its own.

Polycystic kidney disease

There are numerous cysts (small sacs of fluid) growing in the kidneys due to polycystic kidney disease, a genetic condition. Kidney function can be impaired and kidney failure can result. Generally, kidney cysts are harmless and are fairly common. Polycystic kidney disease is a distinct and potentially fatal condition.

Urinary tract infections

The urinary system is infected with bacteria when the urinary tract is infected. It is most common for bladder infections and urethral infections to occur. Fortunately, these infections are straightforward to treat and rarely cause further health issues. Infections that do not receive treatment can cause kidney damage, which may result in kidney failure.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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