Qualitative Tests, Structure and Uses of Cetosteryl Alcohol, Benzyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Propylene Glycol : Pharmaguideline -->

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Qualitative Tests, Structure and Uses of Cetosteryl Alcohol, Benzyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Propylene Glycol

In these tests, use dry ether or benzene as an inert solvent for a liquid compound or a solid compound solution.

Qualitative tests

The following methods can be used to analyze organic compounds for OH groups. In these tests, use dry ether or benzene as an inert solvent for a liquid compound or a solid compound solution.
  • Sodium metal test
  • Esterification test
  • Ceric ammonium nitrate test
  • Acetyl chloride test
  • Phosphate pentachloride test

Cetosteryl alcohol


Cetylsteryl alcohol, also known as ceteryl alcohol, is a kind of alcohol composed primarily of fatty acids CETYL and STEARYL, which is a type fatty alcohol. A vegetable oil, such as palm oil, is extracted to make it. Upon heating, it becomes a waxy white solid.


Used in cosmetics as an opacifier or emollient in shampoos, or as a thickener or emulsifier in creams and lotions. Some "liquid pool covers" contain it as an active ingredient. They are also used as lubricants for nuts and bolts. This surfactant can be used as an emulsion stabilizer, opacifier, foam booster, and viscosity increaser in both aqueous and nonaqueous solutions. A feeling of emolliency is imparted to the skin with emulsions made of water-in-oil and water-in-oil, as well as anhydrous formulations.

Benzyl alcohol


Aromatic alcohols like benzyl alcohol have the formula C6H5CH2OH. BnOH is the symbol for benzyl alcohol. There is no color to benzyl alcohol; it has an aromatic odor that is mildly pleasant. By hydrolyzing benzyl chloride with KOH or NaOH, benzyl alcohol is produced.





This solvent of choice is used for ink, wax, shellac, paint, lacquer, and epoxy resins. E-liquids containing this additive are also used in e-cigarettes to enhance the flavor. According to the U.S. FDA, benzyl alcohol in a concentration of 5% can be used as a treatment for head lice in adults and children older than six months. Wool, nylon, and leather can be dyed with it since it is a dye solvent. Furthermore, it is used as an insect repellent and a photographic developer. At low concentrations, benzyl alcohol is useful as a preservative in cosmetics, intravenous medications, and topical medications because of its bacteriostatic property.



Glycerine or glycerine is also known as glycerol. The chemical compound has a simple polyol structure. The liquid is colorless, odorless, and viscous. It is non-toxic and sweet-tasting. Glycerides are lipids containing glycerol as their backbone. The main source of glycerol is plant and animal sources, both of which produce triglycerides, glycerol esters containing long-chain carboxylic acids. These triglycerides are saponified during hydrolysis to produce glycerol.


Glycerol's ability to kill bacteria and viruses makes it a widely used treatment for burns and wounds. Glycerol may also be used to measure liver damage. The food industry also uses glycerol to sweeten foods. It is one of the ingredients of glycerine soap. As a humectant, glycerol is often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and medical preparations to provide smoothness, lubrication, and hydration.

Propylene glycol


Its chemical formula is CH3CH(OH)CH2OH, and its chemical name is propylene glycol (propane-1,2-diol). Despite being nearly odorless and colorless, the liquid has a faintly sweet taste. It is classified as a diol because it contains two alcohol groups.


The liquid form of Propylene glycol is used for absorbing water. Polyester compounds are also made with propylene glycol, as well as de-icing solutions. The chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries use propylene glycol in antifreeze when it may contact food in the event of a leak. In addition to coffee beverages, liquid sweeteners, ice cream, whipping cream, and soda, propylene glycol is used in various edible products. In many pharmaceutical formulations, including oral, injectable, and topical, propylene glycol is used as a solvent.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of pharmaguideline.com, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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