sp3 Hybridization in Alkanes, Halogenation of Alkanes, Uses of Paraffins : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

Editable Pharmaceutical Documents in MS-Word Format

View

sp3 Hybridization in Alkanes, Halogenation of Alkanes, Uses of Paraffins

Three 2p orbitals and one 2s orbital combine to form four sp3 orbitals of carbon; three 2s orbitals form the same bond in a methane molecule.

Sp3 hybridization in alkanes

  • Three 2p orbitals and one 2s orbital combine to form four sp3 orbitals of carbon; three 2s orbitals form the same bond in a methane molecule.
  • The molecular ammonia molecule (NH3) contains a single pair of electrons in an sp3 hybrid orbital created by the 2s and the 2p orbitals.
  • A pair of lone electrons occupy two of the oxygen atom's four sp3 hybrid orbitals, while two others are bound to hydrogen.
A tetravalent molecule consists of four outer atoms and one central atom. One of the most important and common examples of this type of bond is methane, CH4. One of the most important and common examples of this type of bond is methane, CH4. For four bonds to form, four electrons must be unpaired; so one electron must exist in each of carbon's 2s and 2p orbitals. In contrast to the dumbbell-shaped 2p orbitals, the single 2s orbitals are spherical. Carbon has four bonds with the same length and energy due to the hybridization of its 2s and 2p valence orbitals; however, there may be one bond that is different from the rest. Hybridizing two 2s and three 2p orbitals allows carbon atoms to form four identical orbitals. This is called the sp3 hybrid system.

Hydrocarbon chains can be very complex and vast due to bonds between carbon and hydrogen. During the carbon-carbon bonding process, two sp3 orbitals of each of the two carbon atoms overlap. The two remaining carbon atoms overlap with six hydrogen atoms to form the compound ethane (C2H6).

A lone electron pair may occupy one or more sp3 orbitals if present on the central atom. Ammonia, for example, has two outer-shell electrons within the fourth hybrid orbital of its nitrogen atom, which is not bound together. The oxygen atom can create four sp3 orbitals in a water molecule. Both oxygen atoms are in bonds, and some oxygens form lone pairs. Due to their smaller angles (109.5° and 104.5°, respectively), tetrahedral bonds and the H-O-H bond have closer orbitals, creating closer bonds.

Halogenation of alkanes

When hydrogen atoms are substituted for hydrogen atoms in an alkane, a hydrocarbon derivative containing halogen atoms is produced. Despite being non-polar and devoid of functional groups, alkanes are notoriously unreactive compounds. Therefore, free-radical halogenation is a practice for functionalizing alkanes. Although radical halogenation is a useful technique, it has significant limitations: Alkanes except for the simplest are difficult to select because of their C-H bonds.

Alkanes and their reactions

Organic chemistry often involves substitution reactions, for example - alkane halogenation. Substitution reactions occur when parts of a small reacting molecule replace parts of atoms on a hydrocarbon or derivative.



One halogen atom can be substituted for one hydrogen atom in an alkane by substituting a single halogen atom:

 

General features of halogenations of alkanes

  • Halogenation of alkanes exhibits the following features.
  • R-H notation is used to denote alkanes. This represents an alkyl group with R.
  • When an alkyl group is combined with hydrogen atoms, it forms the parent hydrocarbon for the alkyl group.
  • Halogenated alkanes are represented by R-X as a generic formula. A halogen atom is represented by the letter X.
  • To determine what a reaction is like, we must put the reactants and products in the right order. Alkanes undergo halogenation when heat or light is present.

Uses of paraffin

Among the most common types of paraffin, fuel is jet fuel and rocket fuel. The fuel used in jet engines and rockets is paraffin, which is diesel fuel and tractor fuel.

The following are some common uses for paraffin:
  • The wax-like material has many uses, including lubricants, candle wax, and an alternative to petroleum jelly.
  • Liquid paraffin oil has a high level of refinement in medicine
  • Alkanes are a class of plasticizers and solvents that are extensively applicable.
  • Kerosene: Paraffin is another name for this fuel
  • Oil extracted from non-vegetable (mineral) sources. C15 to C40 alkanes can be used in mixtures. They are usually colorless, odorless, and light.
  • Soft paraffin (petroleum jelly)
  • Vaporizing oil for petrol-paraffin engines: a fuel for tractors
  • The fuel used in households in rural parts of South Africa for paraffin stoves is paraffin fuel.

Liquid paraffin is a mineral oil available in two kinds: heavy liquid paraffin oil and lighter liquid paraffin oil. Paraffin and kerosene are liquid fuels that perform the same function. There are several differences between liquid paraffin and paraffin wax, which is Solid wax-like material. Liquid paraffin is viscous and highly refined, and it can have laxative properties.
Get subject wise pdf documentsView Here





Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
.moc.enilediugamrahp@ofni :liamENeed Help: Ask Question


No comments: Read Comment Policy ▼

Post a Comment

Please don't spam. Comments having links would not be published.


Popular Categories

QA SOPs QC SOPs Micro SOPs HVAC Production SOPs Stores SOPs Checklists Maintenance SOPs HPLC Sterile GLP Validation Protocols Water System GDP Regulatory Maintenance Calibration Warning Letters Education B.Pharmacy
Download COVID-19 SOP for Home



Follow Pharmaguideline


DOCUMENTS

PHARMACEUTICAL DOCUMENTS




Editable Pharmaceutical Documents in MS-Word Format. Ready to use SOPs, Protocols, Master Plans, Manuals and more...

View


adsbypg



GET APP FOR NEWS UPDATES

Pharmaceutical Updates




✔ Worldwide Regulatory Updates
✔ Pharmaceutical News Updates
✔ Interview Questions and Answers
✔ All Guidelines in One Place

Install




Recent Posts