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Diabetes, Thyroid Diseases, Disorders of Sex Hormones

Diabetes mellitus, also known as diabetes, is characterized by high blood sugar levels.

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, also known as diabetes, is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Sugar is moved from your body to your cells by the hormone insulin, where it is stored or turned into energy. Diabetes is a condition in which either the body does not produce enough insulin or it uses insulin inefficiently.
The nerves, kidneys, eyes, and other organs can be damaged by untreated high blood sugar from diabetes.

Diabetes can be classified into a few types:
  • Type 1 diabetes is an example of an autoimmune disease. By attacking and destroying pancreatic cells, the immune system produces insulin. However, the exact reason for the immune attack on the pancreas is unknown. Around 10 percent of people have this type of diabetes.
  • Having type 2 diabetes refers to your body's resistance to insulin, which leads to blood sugar levels that are too high.
  • A prediabetes diagnosis can be made when your blood sugar is raised but not enough to be diagnosed as type 2.
  • During pregnancy, you can develop gestational diabetes. These types of diabetes are caused by hormones produced by the placenta that block insulin.
Although it shares the same name as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus is a rare type of diabetes that is not related to the disease. A different condition occurs when you have too much fluid evaporating from your body because your kidneys work too hard. Different types of diabetes have different symptoms, causes, and treatments.

Symptoms

A rise in blood sugar is a symptom of diabetes.

Diabetes is characterized by the following symptoms:
  • Weight lost
  • Sores that don’t heal
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurry vision
  • Increased hunger
  • Extreme fatigue
In men
Other symptoms associated with diabetes include erectile dysfunction (ED), a reduced sexual drive, and weak muscles.

In women
It is also possible for women with diabetes to experience infection of the urinary tract and yeast infections.

Thyroid diseases

Several functions of the body are controlled by thyroid hormones. Too much or too little thyroid hormones are produced by an enlarged or underactive thyroid gland. In addition to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there are several other types of thyroid disease.

Thyroid disease can be categorized into two main categories: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland can be affected by a number of diseases, causing both of these conditions.

The following conditions can cause hypothyroidism:
Thyroiditis - Thyroiditis enlarges (inflames) the thyroid gland. If your thyroid gland suffers from thyroiditis, it will produce fewer hormones.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis - In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the cells of the body attack and damage the thyroid gland without causing any pain. Genetics plays a role here.

Postpartum thyroiditis - Between 5% and 9% of women develop this condition after birth. The condition usually resolves on its own.

Iodine deficiency - Hormones are produced by the thyroid by using iodine. Iodine deficiency affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide.

A non-functioning thyroid gland - When the thyroid isn't functioning normally from birth, the condition is known as hypothyroidism. Only one in every 4,000 newborns has this problem. A child who goes untreated could have problems both physically and mentally in the future. The doctor performs a thyroid function test on all newborns when they are born.

There are various causes of hypothyroidism, including:
Graves' disease - There might be an overactive thyroid gland and excessive hormone production as a result of this condition. It is also known as a lumpy enlargement of the thyroid gland, or diffuse toxic goiter.

Nodules - The overactive nodules within the thyroid can cause hyperthyroidism. In contrast, multiple nodules are called toxic multi-nodular goiters, which are classified as toxic autonomous thyroid nodules.

Thyroiditis - Patients suffering from this condition may feel pain or not at all. Hormones stored in the thyroid are released during thyroiditis. Thyroid hormone levels temporarily rise as a result.

Excessive iodine - The thyroid produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones when there is too much iodine in your body (the mineral used to make thyroid hormones). Cough syrups and certain medications (e.g., amiodarone, a heart medication) contain excessive iodine.

Disorders of sex hormones

Sex hormone disorders are more common in women than in men. In most cases, this is because of changes in women's bodies that cause sex hormones to be released. Women undergo menstrual and menopausal changes like these. An injury or disease to the primary or supporting glands and organs responsible for producing and regulating hormones can lead to sexual hormone disorders. The testicles are the primary site of testosterone production in men, but other parts of the endocrine system, such as the adrenal glands and pituitary glands, also play a role. The pituitary gland and adrenal glands also play a role in the production of estrogen in women.

Sex hormones are also produced by the heart, liver, kidney, and gonad, in addition to endocrine glands. The endocrine glands or other organs can cause sex hormone disorders therefore.

Sex hormone disorders are primarily caused by:
  • Surgical removal of testicles
  • Medications such as steroids
  • Diseases
  • Infections in organs or glands
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
Among the causes of sexual hormone disorders are:
  • Ovarian tumors
  • Obesity
  • Hormone supplements
  • Thyroid problems
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Low body fats
  • Other health problems
In order to understand how sex hormones are produced, it's critical to understand that several glands and organs are involved. Different glands and organs can cause different symptoms that must be recognized and treated.

Symptoms

Various conditions are caused by sex hormone disorders, which would present with varying symptoms. There are several common conditions, including hirsutism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and hypogonadism. Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or polycystic ovary syndrome, is a condition which occurs when the female body is experiencing hormonal imbalance. Therefore, women may have menstrual problems or have trouble conceiving a child. Her appearance could also change as a result of the condition.

A male pattern hair disorder characterized by an excess of male hormones, particularly testosterone and other androgens, is called hirsutism. Known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal imbalance. Hypogonadism, or sex hormone deficiency, occurs when sex hormones are not produced adequately. This condition is characterized by fatigue, muscle loss, low bone density, anemia, and decreased sexual drive. In addition to personality changes and breast swelling, sex hormone disorders can cause impotence, increased sexual desire, and aggressive behavior.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of pharmaguideline.com, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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