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Forest Ecosystem; Grassland Ecosystem, Desert Ecosystem

Ecology refers to the function of natural systems where organisms interact with one another as well as with their surroundings.

Forest Ecosystem

Ecology refers to the function of natural systems where organisms interact with one another as well as with their surroundings. An ecosystem is thought of as encompassed by the entire biosphere. In addition, forest ecosystems are terrestrial ecosystems.

However, its size can vary significantly, from a small pond to a huge forest or a sea. Such ecosystems are self-sustaining by nature. The ecosystems can be categorized into two categories, namely, terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.

Terrain ecosystems include deserts, grasslands, and forests, while aquatic ecosystems include ponds, lakes, wetlands, and rivers.

An ecosystem is composed of elements such as soil, trees, insects, animals, birds, and man working together as an integrated whole. Forests have more species diversity because they are large, complex ecosystems. Compared to small ecosystems like wetlands and grasslands, it is also much more resilient and stable.

Forest ecosystems also contain both biotic and abiotic components, just like any other ecosystem. Components of abiotic nature such as air, water, and soil are considered inorganic. In biology, producers, consumers, and decomposers are considered biological components. The purpose of ecosystems is to maintain their self-sustainability by interacting with one another.

A forest ecosystem has two main structural characteristics:
  • Species composition - In a forest ecosystem, species composition refers to identifying and counting the plants and animals.
  • Stratification - Different species of trees occupy different levels in the forest eco-system depending on their stratification. The source of nourishment determines the place an organism occupies in an ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are divided into three levels: the top level is occupied by trees, the second is occupied by shrubs, and the bottom level is occupied by herbs and grasses.

Grassland Ecosystem

A grassland ecosystem covers approximately 10 percent of Earth's surface. A few hundred millimeters of rain each year is sufficient to keep it alive, but less than in a true desert. A grassland is normally formed as a result of vegetation formation in temperate climates. In different parts of the world, such as Europe and Asia, or Australia, these landscapes are known as steppes, pampas, Veldt, or Downs.

Plants with herbaceous roots, such as grasses, dominate grasslands. There are few trees in the grassland ecosystem and few trees in the transitional landscape since there isn't enough room for trees and too much space for them in the area where there are no trees.

Grassland Ecosystem Components

Grassland Ecosystem components include:
  • Abiotic components - Carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, and phosphorus are components found in these non-living things.
  • Biotic components - This group covers living elements and its subcomponents -
  1. Producers - There are several grasses that produce food, including Aristida, Cynodon, Digitaria, Desmodium, Setaria, etc. The primary production of food is also supported when herbs and shrubs are present.
  2. Consumers - Grassland ecosystems have three types of consumers.
  3. Primary consumers
  4. Secondary consumers
  5. Tertiary consumers
  6. Decomposers

Desert Ecosystem

Along with having an atmosphere, ecosystem, and land formations essential for its survival, Earth is the only planet that is capable of supporting life. Seventy percent of Earth is covered by water, and thirty percent by land. Deserts make up a fifth of the land surface on Earth. Deserts are located on every continent on this planet. Desert ecosystems are different from each other. The very first thing that comes to mind when we hear the word 'desert' is a big, barren, dry land without vegetation that is covered in sand. However, a desert can also be cold or hot.

It receives very little precipitation yearly, making it one of the driest land areas on Earth. Throughout the year it receives less than 50 centimeters of rainfall. Desert ecosystems are the driest ecosystems on earth, hence their lack of vegetation and limited biodiversity. There are different types of desert ecosystems. Plants and animals in the desert ecosystem have adapted to survive in harsh environments. Desert ecosystems lack precipitation and rainfall. Shortly, a desert ecosystem is a group of animals and plants living together and interacting in a seemingly abandoned ecosystem. Desert ecosystems consist of both biological and abiotic elements.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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