Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy, Electronic Prescribing and Discharge (EP) Systems : Pharmaguideline

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Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy, Electronic Prescribing and Discharge (EP) Systems

Role of Hospital Pharmacist, Organizations in Hospital Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy, Role of Clinical Pharmacists, Education and Training

Hospital Pharmacy

Integrated into the care of a medical facility is the field of hospital pharmacy. Hospitals, outpatient clinics, drug-dependency facilities, poison control centers, drug information centers, and facilities for residential care are among these types of facilities. Medications are chosen, prepared, stored, compounded and dispensed to patients in a medical setting. As part of patient care, it is essential to provide patients and health care providers with information about safe and effective use of medicines.


Pharmacy in hospitals and other medical centers is primarily responsible for managing medication usage. The goal is to optimize patient outcomes by selecting, prescribing, procuring, delivering, administering and reviewing medications. If any medication is used, make sure the right patient, the right dose, the right route, the right time, the right medication, the right information, and the proper documentation are observed.

Role of Hospital Pharmacist

Among the responsibilities of pharmacy technicians are:
  • Developing medication plans that are tailored to the patient's needs.
  • Supporting physicians and other health professionals in the decision-making process regarding drugs.
  • Preparation of hospital-use medications.
  • Assisting patients in understanding and taking their medications.
  • Research into new treatments or adjustments for rare diseases is the purpose of clinical trials.
  • The provision of medicine may be necessary in the event of an emergency.
  • Providing specialized care to cancer patients, for example.

Organizations in Hospital Pharmacy

As a member of the Federation of International Pharmacists (FIP) since 1957, the Hospital Pharmacy Section strives to improve pharmacy practice in hospitals through education and communication. During the event, members can share their pharmacy experiences and discuss global issues that hospital pharmacists should address. The World Health Organization (WHO) may develop new guidelines if it reviews its guidelines. There are also national pharmacy organizations in every country. Meetings of the members are aimed at discussing current issues in hospital pharmacy and putting forward strategies for the profession's future.

Clinical Pharmacy

A clinical pharmacy focuses on optimizing patients' health outcomes through the provision of patient care utilizing medications. Prevention and promotion of wellness are also part of clinical pharmacy. Taking a pharmaceutical care approach defines clinical pharmacy. As well as providing patient care, it also provides information on how to use medication effectively. Clinics and hospitals were the first to introduce clinical pharmacy, but this movement has since expanded to all healthcare settings. To optimize medication, use for the best patient outcomes, clinical pharmacists now work with nurses, physicians, and other healthcare professionals.

Role of Clinical Pharmacists

Among the healthcare team, clinical pharmacists specialize in the therapeutic use of drugs. A variety of tasks can be performed by them, such as:
  • Evaluation of medication therapy and recommendation of appropriate treatment to patients or health care providers.
  • Advice and information about medications that is evidence-based and safe.
  • Acknowledge untreated medical conditions that can be treated by medication.
  • Assessing the patient's progress and making appropriate recommendations regarding medication changes.
  • Assisting patients in taking their medications properly.
  • Directly caring for patients in hospitals and surgical centers.
  • Establishing requirements for governing body continuing professional development after registration.
In the past, clinical pharmacists typically worked in hospitals, clinics, and educational institutes, but the role is expanding rapidly, and clinical pharmacists are becoming more accessible to the general public. Clinical pharmacists have been involved in the growth of this field by reviewing medication regimens and providing advice about information hotlines to prevent future medication errors. Clinical pharmacists also have the option of prescribing some medications in some countries and states of practice. As this role evolves, it has become more complex.

Education and Training

To practice as a clinical pharmacist, one must have a higher education degree in a recognized area of study. Depending on the country where you work, these degrees may require different requirements. Biology, chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, and socio-behavioral science are among the subjects that are usually taught in university programs for clinical pharmacists.

Electronic Prescribing

A technology framework known as e-prescribing allows physicians and other medical practitioners to write and transmit prescriptions electronically to participating pharmacies instead of writing them and faxing them or calling them in. E-prescribing systems are essentially electronic reference books that serve as electronic reference points. E-prescribing systems that are more sophisticated function as standalone script generators. Individual patients can create prescriptions and refill them, manage medications and view patient history, connect to pharmacies or other dispensing sites, and integrate with electronic medical records (EMRs). The US government's Electronic Prescribing Incentive Program requires medical practices to use a qualified e-prescribing system in order to receive reimbursement of up to 2% of Medicare Part B charges. In addition to submitting prescriptions electronically, a qualified e-prescribing system should inform physicians of generic alternatives and inform prescribers about possible allergic reactions. By reducing prescription errors associated with handwriting or faxes that are unreadable, e-prescribing can also improve patient safety.

Discharge (EP) Systems

Patients are tracked and managed electronically throughout their hospital stay with electronic discharge module, saving clinicians' time and reducing the length of stay for patients. An electronic discharge module is a highly auditable, user-friendly tool for tracking patients, streamlining processes and handling hospital resources. A simple, cost-effective platform uses information from drug charts, investigations, and case notes to automatically complete patient discharge letters. In addition to preventing discharge medication errors and improving patient safety, it recommends appropriate medications and dosages. A discharge letter can be instantly transmitted electronically from the system to the GP via the electronic discharge module, increasing efficiency and reducing administrative burden. Patients are discharged faster because of these improved efficiencies.


Money, time, and bed space are saved

Patients can also save time by using e-discharge but doctors and nurses can save time too. The electronic discharge module offers a unique pharmacy interface that allows patients to pay for their medications and have them delivered to their homes. This reduces the amount of time patients spend waiting for medication, and it also saves hospitals money and bed space because patients leave earlier without consuming hospital supplies. In addition to being a stand-alone module, the electronic discharge module can also be a component of a wider system.

Efficiency in Savings

  • Automatic filling in of diagnosis, medication, procedure, and important result fields
  • A real-time occupancy indicator and full audit trail are provided
  • Templates for discharge letters that can be customized, as well as an option to send them electronically to doctors
  • Ensures shorter hospital stays and lower costs.

Cost Saving

  • Medication doses and medications were checked before discharge, which reduced litigation costs.
  • We code accurately and automatically.
  • Private institutions receive itemized billing
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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