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Introduction to Databases, MYSQL, MS ACCESS, Pharmacy Drug Database

The term database is generally used to refer to a structured collection of information.

Introduction to Databases

The term database is generally used to refer to a structured collection of information. An electronic database is a system that makes data easy to access, manipulate and update. Databases are used by organizations as a means of storing, managing, and retrieving information electronically. Modern businesses depend on the efficient arrangement, processing, and management of information, and databases are a cornerstone of enterprise information systems. Databases are much more than just data storage. Inherently logical and efficient methods of storing, retrieving, and storing again data can provide a company with an extremely useful business tool. Reporting and business intelligence capabilities of databases are especially valuable when they are properly exploited.

What type of organization needs and benefits from a database?

In a nutshell, any organization or business that has to keep track of a large number of customers or products can benefit from it. When we say "large" we mean more than the brain can hold, a lot more. It’s true that many mom-and-pop businesses use a ledger and calculator to keep track of inventory and profits/losses and do well. Although that's true, small business owners can still benefit from using an electronic database. It is impossible to simulate profits from an increase in price by 2 cents for ballpoint pens, for example, if a ledger ran a simulation. It is possible through a database. A report cannot be run on the ledger to show the store owner what items need to be restocked at what times each year, based on re-order levels for all items. That can be done by a database as well. In fact, it can send an email or text message to the business owner automatically.

As a rule, however, databases are most useful to large companies with hundreds of thousands, millions, or tens of millions of customers or products in addition to storing a large quantity of personal information about customers. The names, dates of birth, addresses, Social Security numbers, etc. of all the millions of customers of a commercial bank are required. Based on the products the customer has signed up for, another collection of data is generated with each client, such as the account type, account number, account balance, credit card loan, repayment period, mortgage amount, and so on. The third type of data collection is about the customer's specific transactions, including the amount and time of the transaction, the balance that is left, bank charges, the amount that is left to be repaid, and other information.

An individual customer can generate a great deal of data in a short period of time. By multiplying this figure by millions of customers, it becomes clear why having a database storage and retrieval system that works well is vital to the survival of the bank. But hold on. Didn't organizations manage just fine before computers and these newfangled databases came along? Certainly. Nevertheless, if you're not convinced that database systems can improve efficiency and speed, bear in mind this: Your competitors will be more efficient and deliver better service than you do because they are using database systems. A prime example of a modern organization using a database is a commercial bank. Databases are also heavily used in the operations of companies in the insurance, health care, education, manufacturing, telecommunications, and hospitality industries.

Introduction to MYQSL

PHP is most commonly used with MySQL, which is a fast, reliable, flexible, and open-source relational database management system.
  • Developed for web-based software applications, MySQL is a database system.
  • Large and small applications can use MySQL.
  • MYSQL stands for relational database management system.
  • This highly scalable database management system is fast, flexible, reliable, and easy to use.
  • SQL (Structured Query Language) is supported by MySQL.
  • Downloading and using MySQL is free.
  • In 1994, Widenius and Axmark developed the MySQL database management system.
  • C and C++ scripts are used to create MySQL databases.
  • Oracle Corporation currently develops, distributes, and supports MySQL.

Features

  • It uses multi-threading through kernel threads. If there are multiple CPUs, it can run on all of them at the same time.
  • MySQL provides independent modules layered over a multi-layer architecture.
  • MySQL is available for several platforms.
  • The MySQL memory allocation system is thread-based.
  • Transactional engines and non-transactional engines are available in MySQL.
  • MySQL is capable of handling large databases.
  • Heap tables are supported in MySQL.
  • SQL Server works in embedded systems and client-server applications.

Who uses it?

  • WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, and phpBB are all common content management systems.
  • There are many websites that use MySQL as a database.
  • Some of the most famous websites include Wikipedia, Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, and Google (not for searching).

Introduction to MS ACCESS

Databases are relational, such as Access. In a relational database, data items are stored in tables. Let's first make sure that you understand basic database terminology before learning more about Access procedures. Among the most common words used in Access are:
  • File - Records belonging to a file are stored together.
  • Record - A record (or a line) contains all the information (all the fields and columns) for each item in a file.
  • Field - Records are divided into headings and sections, and each of them are known as fields - each heading/column is a field. Among the different types of fields are:
  • Text fields, e.g., telephone numbers, contain data that does not need to be sorted
  • It is possible to sort numbers ascending or descending
  • Data/time fields and currency
  • Data - Data are pieces of information collected together.
  • Database - Information put together in an organized manner. It is possible to sort, query, or modify the Access database at any time.
  • Database object - Access objects contain information that must be processed. Forms, reports, macros, tables, and/or macros comprise it.
  • Table - An organized collection of data is a table, in which columns are called fields, and rows are called records.
  • Datasheet - An organized collection of data is a table, in which columns are called fields, and rows are called records. Columns and rows are displayed.

Introduction to Pharmacy Drug Database

Medicines come in a wide variety. From cough medicines to chemotherapy drugs, these medications can range in power. No pharmacist can be knowledgeable about all the available drugs. As a pharmacist, you can be asked about medications that you are unfamiliar with by a patient or doctor.

Databases of medications and drugs can be found on sites such as the FDA's Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which compiles one of the largest (and most commonly used) drug databases. As an agency of the federal government, the FDA oversees and controls all medications, including the following:
  • Vaccines
  • Dietary supplements
  • Over-the-counter (OTC) medications
  • Prescription medications
A large portion of the drugs approved by the FDA and are included in its drug database. Best of all, this content can be accessed with ease. The FDA drug database can be accessed by going to its website. Using the search box on their website, you can enter the name of the drug or an active ingredient to search the database. A drug database maintained by the FDA can also be used to search for drugs currently undergoing clinical trials and/or approval processes. Drugs can legally be sold and used in the United States only if they have been approved by the FDA. Consequently, drug companies are required to submit formal applications to the FDA prior to receiving approval for a drug. This database contains information on drugs that have been presented to the FDA, but have yet to be approved.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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