Respiratory System: Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Airways Diseases : Pharmaguideline

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Respiratory System: Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Airways Diseases

Organs and tissues in the respiratory system work together to keep you breathing. Blood vessels, lungs, and airways all make up respiratory system.

Respiratory System

Organs and tissues in the respiratory system work together to keep you breathing! Your blood vessels, lungs, and airways all make up your respiratory system. The respiratory system also includes your lungs' muscles. By working together, these organs distribute oxygen throughout the body and, by removing waste gases like carbon dioxide; they help to keep the body healthy.

Respiratory systems perform a variety of functions. As well as assisting your inhalation (breathing in) and exhalation (breathing out), it also:
  • You can also smell and talk.
  • Warms air up to your body temperature while moisturizing it to meet your body's humidity requirements.
  • Oxygenates your body cells.
  • Carbon dioxide and other waste gases are exhaled out of your body when you exhale.
  • Prevents harmful substances from entering your lungs.


In order to breathe, several parts of the respiratory system work together. Many different components make up each group. You breathe air into your lungs through your airways. Among the parts of your airways are:
  • Mouth and nose - Openings in the mouth and nose that allow you to breathe in fresh air from the outside world.
  • Sinuses - There are hollow areas in your head between the bones that regulate the humidity and temperature of the air you breathe.
  • Pharynx (throat) - The pharynx (throat) is the tube supplying air from your mouth and nose to your trachea (windpipe).
  • Trachea - You breathe through your trachea (windpipe).
  • Bronchial tubes - The tubules that connect each lung to the windpipe are known as the bronchial tubes.
  • Lungs - Oxygen is taken from the air by your lungs and transferred to your blood.
Throughout your body, your bloodstream carries oxygen to your organs and tissues. During inhalation and exhalation, your lungs are filled with air. Among the muscles and bones in your respiratory system you will find:
  • Diaphragm - It functions as a muscle to help the lungs take in and expel air.
  • Ribs - Chest and lungs are protected by the ribs.
When you breathe out, your blood exhales carbon dioxide and other waste products. Additional components that are involved in this process include:
  • Alveoli - A small number of small air sacs in the lungs exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Bronchioles - Branches leading from the bronchi into the alveoli.
  • Capillaries - Blood vessels enclosing alveoli and carrying carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  • Lung – lobes - Two lobes on the left lung and three lobes on the right lung.
  • Pleura - A thin sac surrounds each lobe of the lungs, which separates them from the chest wall.
The respiratory system also consists of:
  • Cilia - Dust and other irritants are filtered out of your airways by a wave-like system of hairs.
  • Epiglottis - The tracheal flap closes during swallowing, blocking the passage of food and liquids through the airway.
  • Larynx (voice box) - This hollow organ allows a person to make sounds and talk by moving air in and out.


The symptoms of asthma include narrowed and swollen airways, as well as extra mucus production. As a result, you may experience breathing problems, coughing, whistling, and shortness of breath. In some cases, asthma just causes minor discomfort. There are some people who suffer from asthma attacks that can be life-threatening and interfere with daily activities. The asthma symptoms cannot be cured, but they can be controlled. The asthma symptoms frequently change over time, so it is important that you and your doctor keep track of your symptoms and adjust your treatment accordingly.


Individuals with asthma experience different symptoms. If you have asthma, you may have symptoms infrequently or only occasionally - such as when exercising - or you may have symptoms all of the time. Asthma symptoms and signs include:
  • Chest pain or tightness
  • Shortness of breath, wheezing or coughing that makes it difficult to sleep
  • Influenza or the common cold can cause inflammation in the throat and cause coughing or wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Asthma symptoms in children include wheezing during exhalation
Asthma symptoms that are likely to worsen include:
  • It is associated with an increase in asthma symptoms and signs
  • Inhalers used more frequently for quick relief
  • A device used to measure lung function (peak flow meter) indicates you have an increasing difficulty breathing.

Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease

As chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive airways disease is characterized by obstruction of the airways. COPD obstructs the flow of air out of the lungs due to chronic inflammatory diseases of the lungs. heezing, coughing, mucus (sputum) production, and breathing difficulty are common symptoms. As a result of long-term exposure to irritating gases and particulate matter, it's most commonly caused by cigarette smoke. For those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the risk of heart disease, lung cancer, and other conditions increases. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the main causes of COPD. Patients with COPD commonly suffer from multiple diseases at the same time.

It is inflammation of the bronchial tubes (tubes responsible for carrying air to the lungs) that constitutes a chronic episode of bronchitis. Daily coughing and mucus production (sputum) are characteristics of this condition. Emphysema is a condition characterized by damage to the tiny air passages (bronchioles) in the lungs caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, other irritating gases, or other particulates.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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