Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Procyclidine hydrochloride, Tridihexethyl chloride, Isopropamide iodide, Ethopropazine hydrochloride : Pharmaguideline -->

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Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Procyclidine hydrochloride, Tridihexethyl chloride, Isopropamide iodide, Ethopropazine hydrochloride

Procyclidine hydrochloride is a synthetic cholinergic blocking agent that was introduced in 1957.

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agent: Procyclidine hydrochloride


Procyclidine hydrochloride is a synthetic cholinergic blocking agent that was introduced in 1957. Procyclidine hydrochloride is used to treat extrapyramidal disorders such as Parkinson's disease, akathisia, and dystonia.
  • It is also used as an adjunct to anesthesia and as a preoperative medication to reduce the amount of saliva and gastric secretions.
  • Procyclidine hydrochloride can cause CNS depression, hypotension, tachycardia, dry mouth, and blurred vision.
Usage of Procyclidine hydrochloride:
  • Procyclidine hydrochloride is available in 5 mg and 10 mg tablets, and injectable solutions of 5 mg/mL.
  • The usual adult dose is 5 to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily.
  • The recommended dose for children is 0.5 mg/kg three or four times daily.
  • Elderly patients and those with renal or hepatic impairment should be cautious while taking this drug.

Side Effects of Procyclidine hydrochloride:

Procyclidine hydrochloride can cause drowsiness, dizziness, or lightheadedness, which may impair your ability to operate a motor vehicle or operate hazardous machinery.

You should not breast-feed while taking procyclidine hydrochloride.

SAR of Procyclidine hydrochloride
Like methantheline bromide, procyclidine hydrochloride is being explored as a therapeutic option for disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea. Like other cholinergic agonists, it acts by binding to certain receptors in the brain and activating them, resulting in improved motor function and reduced symptoms of these diseases.

Procyclidine hydrochloride differs from methantheline bromide in several key structural features, including the presence of a different substituent at position 2 of the Pyrrolidine ring and the absence of an oxygen atom at position 4.

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Tridihexethyl chloride

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents are a class of medications used to block the effects of acetylcholine. Tridihexethyl chloride is a synthetic cholinergic blocking agent that is used to prevent muscle spasms. It functions by blocking the action of acetylcholine on the muscles.
  • Tridihexethyl chloride is available as a topical gel, ointment, or cream.
  • Side effects of tridihexethyl chloride include dry mouth, blurred vision, and drowsiness.
Tridihexethyl chloride may interact with other medications. Tridihexethyl chloride is secreted in breast milk and may cause problems in the nursing baby.

It is not known whether tridihexethyl chloride passes into human milk. Consulting healthcare provider before breastfeeding is necessary.

SAR of Tridihexethyl chloride
Tridihexethyl chloride is a cholinergic agonist similar to procyclidine hydrochloride, and it works by binding to certain receptors in the brain and activating them. Like procyclidine hydrochloride, tridihexethyl chloride contains several key structural features that are thought to contribute to its pharmacological properties, including a Pyrrolidine ring, a benzyl side chain, and a chlorine atom substituted for a hydrogen atom. These features are thought to contribute to its slightly different pharmacological properties.

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Isopropamide iodide




Isopropamide iodide is a synthetic cholinergic blocking agent used to treat various gastrointestinal and urinary disorders.

It is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptor.

Usage of Isopropamide iodide:
  • Isopropamide iodide is administered orally or by injection.
  • The recommended oral dose in adults is 25-50 mg three times a day.
Who should avoid this drug?
Patients with glaucoma, gastrointestinal obstruction, and myasthenia gravis should avoid isopropamide iodide.

SAR of Isopropamide iodide
Isopropamide iodide is another cholinergic agonist similar to procyclidine hydrochloride. It also acts by binding to certain receptors in the brain and activating them. Isopropamide iodide shares several key structural features with procyclidine hydrochloride, including a Pyrrolidine ring, a benzyl side chain, and a chlorine atom substituted for a hydrogen atom. However, the position where these features are located on the molecule differs between isopropamide iodide and procyclidine hydrochloride.

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agent: Ethopropazine hydrochloride



Ethopropazine hydrochloride is a synthetic cholinergic blocking agent that belongs to the phenothiazine class of medications.
  • Ethopropazine hydrochloride works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that transmits messages between nerve cells.
  • This prevents the overstimulation of the muscles caused by acetylcholine and results in a decrease in muscle tone.
Ethopropazine hydrochloride is available as a tablet, and the recommended dose is 1-2 mg three times per day.

Side effects of Ethopropazine hydrochloride:
  • Blurred vision
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Muscle weakness
  • Twitching
  • Seizures
  • Chest pain
SAR of Ethopropazine hydrochloride
Like procyclidine hydrochloride, ethopropazine hydrochloride contains a Pyrrolidine ring, a benzyl side chain, and a chlorine atom substituted for a hydrogen atom. These key structural features are thought to contribute to its slightly different pharmacological properties.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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