Inhalation Anesthetics: Halothane, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane, Desflurane : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

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Inhalation Anesthetics: Halothane, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane, Desflurane

Inhalation anesthetics are inhaled (breathed in) drugs to produce anesthesia (a state of loss of sensation or awareness).

Inhalation Anesthetics

Inhalation anesthetics are inhaled (breathed in) drugs to produce anesthesia (a state of loss of sensation or awareness).

They are used during surgical and other medical procedures to relieve pain and to help keep patients from remembering the process.

There are several different types of inhalation anesthetics, including halothane, Methoxyflurane, enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane, and desflurane.

The drugs are breathed in through a mask or tube, and the amount given can be controlled.

This allows the anesthesiologist to keep you comfortable and safe during your surgery or procedure.
Inhalation anesthetics are a type of medication used to help people relax and feel less pain during medical procedures.

There are several different types of inhalation anesthetics, including nitrous oxide (N2O), sevoflurane (Sevoflo), desflurane (Suprane), and isoflurane (Forane).Uses:

Inhalation anesthetics are most commonly used in procedures that involve the lungs or airways, such as bronchoscopy or a laryngoscopy. They can also be used in other types of procedures, such as a colonoscopy or a urodynamic study.

Benefits

Inhalation anesthetics can help people feel more relaxed during a medical procedure.

Side effects

1. Dizziness
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Confusion
4. Difficulty urinating
5. Slow heart rate
6. Low blood pressure
7. Slow breathing
8. Seizures
9. Allergic reactions
10. Heart attack
11. Stroke

Risks

1. Drug interactions
2. Dose-related effects
3. Respiratory depression
4. Cardiac arrhythmias
5. Liver damage
6. Kidney damage
7. Fetal harm (in pregnant women)
8. Malignant hyperthermia (a rare but potentially life-threatening reaction to some types of inhalation anesthetics)
9. Death

Interactions

Inhalation anesthetics can interact with other medications, including over-the-counter drugs and supplements.

Dosage

The dose of inhalation anesthetics will be different for different people.

Precautions

There are some precautions you should take when using inhalation anesthetics.
1. Asthma
2. Emphysema
3. Heart disease
4. Liver disease
5. Kidney disease
6. Pregnant or breastfeeding
7. Allergy to any medication
8. History of malignant hyperthermia
9. History of seizures
10. Alcohol or drug abuse

Halothane

  • Halothane is an inhalation anesthetic that has been used for many years.
  • Halothane can cause a decrease in blood pressure and an irregular heartbeat.
  • It also may cause liver damage, so it is not a good choice for people with liver problems.



Mechanism of halothane

  • Halothane works by binding to a specific site on the CNS called the halothane receptor.
  • This binding leads to a decrease in the activity of particular ion channels, which results in a reduction of neuron firing.
  • This decreased inaction leads to the loss of sensation and consciousness.

Methoxyflurane

Methoxyflurane is an inhalation anesthetic that was once very popular. However, it is now rarely used because it can cause kidney damage.

Mechanism of Methoxyflurane

  • Methoxyflurane works by causing a decrease in the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to a loss of sensation and consciousness.
  • The anesthetic is breathed in through a mask or tube, and the amount given can be controlled.
  • This allows the anesthesiologist to keep you comfortable and safe during your surgery or procedure.


Enflurane

Enflurane is an inhalation anesthetic that has been used for many years. However, it also may cause liver damage, so it is not a good choice for people with liver problems.

Mechanism

There is a decrease in blood pressure with induction of anesthesia, followed by a return to near normal with surgical stimulation.


Sevoflurane

It has a lower risk of liver damage than other inhalation anesthetics, so that it may be a good choice for people with liver problems.

Mechanism of Sevoflurane

These work by temporarily reducing the activity of the body's central nervous system.

Isoflurane

It may be used to induce or maintain anesthesia, but instead of using Isoflurane, other drugs are frequently utilized to start anesthesia. Isoflurane is delivered via inhalation.

Mechanism

  • Isoflurane is a gas that reduces pain sensitivity (analgesia) and relaxes muscles.
  • Isoflurane appears to bind to GABA, glutamate, and glycine receptors, but each has different effects.
  • It inhibits the action of glycine receptors, which results in a loss of motor function.
  • It blocks the activity of NMDA glutamate receptors by binding to their receptors.
  • Isoflurane inhibits the flow of electricity through activated potassium channels.
  • Isoflurane has direct effects on both intracellular and extracellular molecules.
  • It activates calcium ATPase by increasing membrane permeability.

Desflurane

Desflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.

Mechanism

  • The mechanism of inhalational anesthetics is still poorly understood.
  • They can inhibit excitatory ion channels and augment inhibitory ion channel activity.
  • The most significant agonism is at the GABAA channel.
  • Desflurane binds to the NMDA receptor, glycine receptors, glutamate receptors, induces potassium voltage-gated channels, and inhibits both NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain and calcium transporting ATPases.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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