Drug Receptors Interactions Signal Transduction Mechanisms, G-protein–coupled Receptors, Ion Channel Receptor : Pharmaguideline -->

Editable Pharmaceutical Documents in MS-Word Format

View

Drug Receptors Interactions Signal Transduction Mechanisms, G-protein–coupled Receptors, Ion Channel Receptor

Excessive or prolonged signaling can lead to several problems, including cell death, tissue damage, and disease.

Drug Receptors Interactions Signal Transduction Mechanisms

How does this mechanism work?

Step 1: The drug attaches itself to the receptor.
Step 2: The drug's affinity for the receptor changes the conformation (shape) of the receptor.
Step 3: The change in the receptor's shape activates a signaling cascade within the cell.
Step 4: This signaling cascade leads to a cellular response, which may be an altered gene expression, changed enzyme activity, or changed cell membrane potential.

What if the drug does not bind to the receptor?

If the drug does not bind to the receptor, there can be no signal transduction and cellular response. This is why drugs need to have a high affinity for their receptors; otherwise, they will not affect.

Importance of excessive or prolonged signaling

Excessive or prolonged signaling can lead to several problems, including cell death, tissue damage, and disease. Therefore, drug receptors must be regulated to not produce excessive or prolonged signaling. This is accomplished through desensitization, where the receptor becomes less responsive to the drug over time.

What are some drugs that work by binding to drug receptors?

Examples of drugs that act through drug receptors include hormones, neurotransmitters, and medications. Hormones are chemical messenger molecules that are produced by the endocrine glands.

They bind to hormone receptors and produce various effects, such as regulating metabolism or promoting growth.

Medications are synthetic drugs designed to bind to specific receptors and produce the desired effect. Examples include painkillers, antidepressants, and blood pressure medications.

G-protein–coupled Receptors

G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a type of drug receptor found on cells' surfaces. They are so-named because they are coupled to G proteins involved in signaling cascades.

GPCRs, found on cells' surfaces, are responsible for various functions, including mediating the effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, and medications.

There are many different variants of GPCRs, and they're classified into groups based on the type of G protein they couple to. Some of the most well-known GPCRs include adrenaline, histamine, and serotonin receptors.


Types of G-protein–coupled Receptors

1. Adrenergic receptors

  • Alpha receptors: These receptors are found in smooth muscle and mediate the vasoconstrictor effects of adrenaline.
  • Beta receptors: Activated G protein-coupled receptors are found in smooth muscles or some tissues. They mediate the vasodilator effects of adrenaline.

2. Histamine receptors

  • H1 receptors: These receptors are present in smooth muscle or tissues. They mediate the vasodilator and bronchoconstrictor effects of histamine.
  • H2 receptors: These receptors are found in the stomach and other tissues. They mediate the gastric acid-secreting effects of histamine.

3. Serotonin receptors

5-HT1 receptors: Serotonin's vasoconstrictor actions are mediated by these receptors.
5-HT2 receptors: These receptors are present in smooth muscle and some other tissues. They mediate the vasodilator and bronchoconstrictor effects of serotonin.
5-HT3 receptors: The receptors for the neurotransmitters are located in the central nervous system and on vagal nerve endings. They mediate the nausea and vomiting effects of serotonin.
5-HT4 receptors: These receptors are found in the gut and other tissues. They mediate the prokinetic and secretory effects of serotonin.
5-HT6 receptors: These receptors are found in the brain. They mediate the cholinergic and antidepressant effects of serotonin.
5-HT7 receptors: These receptors are found in the brain. They mediate the excitatory and proinflammatory effects of serotonin.

Ion Channel Receptors

  • On the surface of cells, ion channel receptors are a type of drug-receptor.
  • Ion channel receptors are responsible for mediating the effects of neurotransmitters and medications.
  • Ion channels exist in various types, which are characterized according to the sort of ion they allow to pass through the cell membrane.

What are the functions of ion channels in the nervous system and neural signaling?

Ion channels play a vital role in nervous system function and neural signaling. Ion channels are proteins present in the lipids of neurons' cell membranes.
  1. Allow ions to move across the cell membrane, such as sodium and potassium.
  2. Responsible for mediating the effects of neurotransmitters and medications.
  3. Ion channels also play a role in the regulation of neural activity.

Types of Ion Channel Receptors

1. Sodium Channels

  • Voltage-gated sodium channels: These channels are found in nerve and muscle cells. They are in charge of the action potentials that take place in neurons.
  • Calcium-activated sodium channels: These channels are found in smooth muscle and other tissues. They mediate the effects of calcium on cell function.

2. Potassium Channels

  • -Voltage-gated potassium channels: These channels are found in nerve and muscle cells. They are in charge of the repolarization of neurons following an action pulse.
  • -Chloride-activated potassium channels: These channels are found in red blood cells and other tissues. They help to regulate the chloride concentration in cells.

3. Calcium Channels

  • Voltage-gated calcium channels: These channels are found in nerve and muscle cells.
  • Calcium-activated potassium channels: These channels are found in smooth muscles and various tissues. They mediate the effects of calcium on cell function.

4. Chloride Channels

  • Voltage-gated chloride channels: These channels are found in nerve and muscle cells.
  • Gated chloride channels: These channels are found in red blood cells and other tissues. They help to regulate the chloride concentration in cells.
Get subject wise printable pdf documentsView Here





Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
.moc.enilediugamrahp@ofni :liamENeed Help: Ask Question


No comments: Read Comment Policy ▼

Post a Comment

Please don't spam. Comments having links would not be published.


Popular Categories

QA SOPs QC SOPs Micro SOPs HVAC Production SOPs Stores SOPs Checklists Maintenance SOPs HPLC Sterile GLP Validation Protocols Water System GDP Regulatory Maintenance Calibration Warning Letters Education B.Pharmacy
Download COVID-19 SOP for Home


CURRENT JOBS

Show All ❭❭Jobs by PharmaJobs

Follow Pharmaguideline


DOCUMENTS

PHARMACEUTICAL DOCUMENTS




Editable Pharmaceutical Documents in MS-Word Format. Ready to use SOPs, Protocols, Master Plans, Manuals and more...

View


adsbypg



GET APP FOR NEWS UPDATES

Pharmaceutical Updates




✔ Worldwide Regulatory Updates
✔ Pharmaceutical News Updates
✔ Interview Questions and Answers
✔ All Guidelines in One Place

Install




Recent Posts