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Neurohumoral Transmission, Co-transmission and Classification of Neurotransmitters

Neurohumoral transmission is when electrical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

Neurohumoral Transmission

Neurohumoral transmission is when electrical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

Neurohumoral transmission can occur either at the synapse, where two neurons meet or via gap junctions, which are specialized cell-cell junctions that allow electrical signals to pass directly from one cell to another.
  • When came out from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft, drugs are bound to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron and elicited a response.
  • The release of neurotransmitters is regulated by several factors, including the level of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, the availability of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, and the activity of enzymes that break down neurotransmitters.
The most commonly involved in neurohumoral transmission neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

These neurotransmitters play a role in a wide range of functions, including motor control, cognitive function, mood, and appetite. Neurotransmitters can also be affected by drugs and alcohol, leading to alterations in mood and behavior.
  • Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow neurons to communicate with one another.
  • This triggers a response, affecting things like mood, appetite, and cognitive function.
  • Neurotransmitters can also be affected by drugs and alcohol.
Neurohumoral transmission is a complex process that is not fully understood, but it is clear that neurotransmitters play a vital role in the function of the nervous system.

Co-transmission

Co-transmission is when two different neurotransmitters are released from a single presynaptic neuron. This can happen either simultaneously or sequentially.

Co-transmission is thought to play a role in various physiological processes, including pain perception, motor control, and mood regulation.

Neurotransmission is the process by which chemical messages are passed between neurons via Neurotransmitters.

Cocaine has the potential to affect neurotransmitter reuptake. Reuptake is the process by which neurotransmitters are recycled back into the neuron. Cocaine inhibits this process, which means that there are more neurotransmitters available to bind to receptors.

However, it is clear that it plays a vital role in the nervous system and can be involved in normal and abnormal functions.

Classification of Neurotransmitters

  • The main types of neurotransmitters are amino acids, biogenic amines, and peptides. Amino acids are the simplest type of neurotransmitter and include substances such as glycine and GABA.
  • Biogenic amines are derived from amino acids and include substances such as serotonin and dopamine.
  • Peptides are short chains of amino acids and include substances such as endorphins and enkephalins. Peptides are another category of neurotransmitters and include substances like endorphins and enkephalins.
  • Depending on the condition, certain neurotransmitters could be both excitatory as well as inhibitory. For example, glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter in some contexts, but it can also act as an inhibitor under other conditions.
  • Amino acids are the most common type of neurotransmitter and include substances like dopamine, glutamate, and GABA. Monoamines are another type of neurotransmitter and include norepinephrine and serotonin.
  • There is also a category of neurotransmitters called neuromodulators. These are substances that modify the activity of other neurotransmitters. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine and histamine.


Neurotransmitters can also be classified by their functions like
  • Acetylcholine: This neurotransmitter is involved in various functions, including memory, learning, and muscle control.
  • Dopamine: The neurotransmitter is included in maintaining the control of motion and rewarding act.
  • Norepinephrine: This neurotransmitter is included in the response of fight and flight.
  • Serotonin: This neurotransmitter is involved in regulating mood and appetite.
  • GABA: This neurotransmitter is involved in controlling anxiety and muscle tone.
  • Tryptophan: This amino acid is involved in regulating sleep and mood.
  • Tyrosine: This amino acid is involved in synthesizing dopamine and norepinephrine.
  • Endorphins: These neurotransmitters are involved in pain relief and euphoria.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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