Sep 27, 2015
Petri dishes were first used by German physician Julius Petri in 1887. He covered one culture plate to another plate to prevent the contamination. Before him the culture plates were covered with the glass bell jars.
Sep 20, 2015
Sieves and screens are widely used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing as well as in the quality control to determine the particle size of the raw materials. Mesh is the most common measurement unit used for the sieves and screens.
Sep 13, 2015
Sep 6, 2015
Ultra violet radiation plays a vital role in pharmaceutical industry to control the microbial contamination in various stages including water system. No chemical is required to add in water; hence the procedure is environment friendly and safe. A high dose of UV radiation is required to control the microbes and the process can be reverse in the presence of light. This dose should damage their nucleic acid too enough so that it could not be repaired again by the process of photo-reactivation in the presence of light.
Aug 30, 2015
Reverse osmosis is the best known filtration method and it is widely used in pharmaceutical water systems. This process is used to remove the particles including ions from the water. Reverse osmosis system contain a semi-permeable membrane that allows to pass the water and rejects the contaminants.
Aug 23, 2015
A pH meter is used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. pH is the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. A solution containing more H+ ions remains acidic while the solution containing more OH- ions remains alkaline. pH value of solutions ranges from 1 to 14.
Aug 16, 2015
To control microbial growth, RO systems must be chemically sanitized on a regular basis. Prior to sanitation it is important to chemically clean the first-pass RO system. This will help to disrupt any biofilm that protects viable bacteria from contact with the sanitant. It also removes foulants that will react with and chemically deplete the sanitizing agent.
Aug 9, 2015
Different storage conditions are required in pharmaceuticals. In storage area drug substances are stored on different conditions according to their requirements. Some chemicals and solutions in quality control and media in microbiology section are required to store in specific conditions.
Aug 2, 2015
Temperature sensors are used in different processes in pharmaceuticals. Different types of temperatures are used in different processes according to their accuracy needs.
There are following three common types of temperature sensors.
Jul 26, 2015
Any process that can have any type of risk should go through the quality risk management. These risks may impact the quality of the pharmaceutical products. It is a requirement of good manufacturing practices. Quality risk management is an effective tool to maintain and improve the quality of the pharmaceutical products.
Jul 19, 2015
It is necessary to use recovery factor for accurate results in cleaning validation of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipments. Recovery factor is the recovery of swabbed material from the equipment to the solution.
Jul 12, 2015
In pharmaceutical manufacturing more than one ingredients are mixed during blending. It always remains in one's mind that what will happened if we increase the mixing time than specified in the batch manufacturing records.
Jul 6, 2015
Technology transfer is the process by which the manufacturing process and analytical method is transferred from one manufacturing unit to another unit or from R&D to manufacturing unit.
Jun 28, 2015
Sometimes during manufacturing, the in-process materials need to be hold for a period more than usual. Hold time study during manufacturing is validation of the hold time period of in-process materials. Now hold time study during pharmaceutical manufacturing has more importance because it is now recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Jun 21, 2015
It confuses every microbiologist in pharmaceuticals to incubate the common plates for fungal count and bacterial count that which temperature should choose first for best growth of fungus and bacteria both.
Jun 14, 2015
Jun 8, 2015
A lot of disinfectants are used for sanitization and disinfection in pharmaceutical industries. These have different antimicrobial properties based on their mode of action. Disinfectants having different mode of actions are helpful to prevent the development of the resistance in microbes.
May 31, 2015
There are different types of detergents such as anionic detergents, cationic detergents, amphoteric detergents, alkaline detergent etc. This nature of the detergent depends upon the nature of the surfactant found in the detergent. These all have their specific use due to their cleaning properties.
May 25, 2015
It has been a topic of confusion to differentiate between humidity and relative humidity. Relative humidity is an important factor that affects the quality of pharmaceutical products. It is important to control the humidity in the areas like granulation and compression.
May 18, 2015
Batch manufacturing record is a written document of the batch that is prepared during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. It contains actual data of the batch manufacturing and whole manufacturing process step by step.
May 13, 2015
Pharmaceutical products having raw materials derived from the animal source have risk of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE). This disease can transmit in human through pharmaceutical dosage forms from the cattle infected with the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
May 5, 2015
Poly Alpha Olefin (PAO) is used for HVAC qualification in pharmaceuticals. PAO is used as a replacement of the DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) that was used for this purpose from a long time.
Apr 26, 2015
Introduction of undesired dust or dirt into or on to during manufacturing, packing and transportation is called as contamination and contaminant is the unwanted element being introduced in the system. It is any substance which has an adverse effect on the product or process.
Apr 19, 2015
Apr 12, 2015
Resistance in microbes against the disinfectants used for cleaning is a serious issue in pharmaceuticals but in most of the pharmaceutical manufacturing units it is ignored. Continuous use of same disinfectants may lead to the development of resistance in the microbes.