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Resolution Factor, Tailing Factor, Theoretical Plates and Capacity Factor in HPLC

Formula and calculation for resolution factor, tailing factor, theoretical plates and capacity factor in HPLC analysis of pharmaceutical products as per usp chromatography.

Resolution factor:

Resolution factor shows the accuracy of the quantitative analysis and resolution factor should be grater then 1.5 or specified in the individual monograph. Resolution factor can be calculated by following formula:
Calculation in Chromatography
R =               2(t2-t1)               
          2.70 (W1h/2+W2h/2)
W = Peak width
h = Hight
t1 = Retention time of first peak
t2 = Retention time of second peak

Tailing factor:

It should meet the requirements of the individual monograph and can be calculated by following formula:
T = W 0.05
W0.05 = Peak width at 5% high
F = Leading edge of peak

Theoretical Plates:

Number of Theoretical Plate represents the column efficiency. It should meet the value given in the monograph. It can be calculated by the following formula:

n = 16(t)2   or  5.54x (t)2
      (W)2           (W1/2)2

Capacity factor:

K= t – 1
t = Retention time of second peak (active)
tα = Retention time of first peak (impurity)

Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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