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Evaporation: Objectives, Applications and Factors Influencing Evaporation

HVAC systems, for instance, use evaporators to vaporize compressed cooling chemicals, which remove heat from the system.

Evaporation

Most industries requiring constant supplies of chemicals or fluids use evaporators. HVAC systems, for instance, use evaporators to vaporize compressed cooling chemicals, which remove heat from the system. The heat is expelled outdoors through condenser coils, which increases efficiency.

Desalination plants turn seawater into clean water by using heat recovery evaporators. The simplicity and low energy requirements of these evaporators make them more appealing to utility companies than alternative solutions. This lowers operating costs. Various other compounds are also separated from crude oil using evaporators in oil fields. Energy companies still favor these evaporators despite the fact that they can reduce operating costs while meeting government standards, despite their inability to use these devices as easily as other types. Their relatively compact size enables them to be easily transported. For consistency in food products, evaporators are used. A good example is coffee. Condensed milk is created by removing water from milk through evaporation. Liquid foods such as noodles are also concentrated by evaporation. Drugs are more stable when excessive moisture is removed from them using evaporators in the pharmaceutical industry.

An array of industrial applications can benefit from evaporators due to their efficiency. Processors are particularly affected by this. Food and dairy products are processed using evaporators. Pureed tomato products, milk, herbal extracts, gelatin, coconut water, and whey and milk proteins are processed in evaporators. Paints, glycerin, sodium nitrate, dyes and nitrates are also chemicals that can emit ozone. Evaporators are also widely used in food and pharmaceutical applications for very low temperatures. The process of producing plasma and fermented products, fruit juices, bulk drugs, glycerin, sweet water, and yeast extracts is also used to produce protein hydrolysates. Similarly, evaporators can be used to produce whey, gelatin, malt extract, glucose, fructose, dextrose, sorbitol, and maltodextrin.

Objectives

  • Getting concentrated product
  • An aqueous solution must be removed of its water
  • To develop drinking water by evaporating seawater
  • It is used to obtain solid-free water for use in chemical boilers.

Applications

  • Making galenical preparations involves evaporation.
  • A biological product (such as insulin) is made by evaporating a liquid.
  • Plasma and serum (blood products) are prepared through evaporation.
  • Antibiotics, enzymes, and hormones are prepared by evaporation.
  • To make demineralized drinking water, evaporation is used.
  • A liquid extract or soft extract is prepared through evaporation.
  • Factors influencing evaporation

Temperature

A direct relationship exists between temperature and evaporation rate. Evaporation increases with increasing temperature. Water molecules move faster when the temperature rises. In the vapor phase, the molecules have acquired kinetic energy and are leaving the surface. Evaporation rates are generally determined by heat transfer since latent heat must be provided for vaporization. Heat transfer rates are determined by temperature gradients.

Surface tension

Surface area increases as evaporation rate increases when exposed to evaporation.

Agitation

Evaporation requires agitation.

Vapour pressure

The high vapor pressure of low boiling point liquids causes them to evaporate rapidly.

Density

Increasing density decreases evaporation rate.

Time of evaporation

When exposed for a short time to a high temperature, the active ingredients may be less damaged than when exposed for a longer period to a lower temperature. Evaporators have used relatively high temperatures, but their exposure times are very short.

Economic factors

The selection of the method and apparatus should take into account economic factors. A liquid is heated most efficiently by an evaporator.

Moisture content

When moisture is present, some drug components decompose more quickly, especially at higher temperatures. Evaporation should therefore be conducted at a low temperature that can be controlled.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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