Basics of HVAC System and Its Components : Pharmaguideline

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Basics of HVAC System and Its Components

HVAC system is a basic requirement of a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility. It has different parts those help to maintain the required temperature and humidity in the manufacturing area.
Air conditioning has changed over the years, the HVAC system is used to control the environment in the manufacturing as well as the storage area of the pharmaceutical facility. Maintenance of area and air quality by filtration and temperature and humidity is controlled by using an HVAC system.  

What is an HVAC System?

An HVAC system is Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning system. That is used for conditioning of air in a big area where a usual air conditioner cannot be used. It contains a boiler, chiller cooling tower and air handling unit.

This system is used to control the temperature of a designated space with the control of the moisture in the air, supply the area with fresh air by controlling the carbon dioxide and oxygen level. It also controls the contamination of airborne particles by regulating the movement of air.

Flow Chart of HVAC System

The HVAC system can effectively control the air conditions of a given parameter through heating by adding the thermal energy in an area to increase the temperature; the cooling is done through decreasing the thermal energy in an area to decrease the temperature. To increase the humidity in the area water vapors are used and it is called humidifying the area. To decrease the humidity, water vapors are removed from the area and it is called dehumidifying the area.

The air is cleaned by removing the smoke, dust or pollens that contaminate the air. The air is ventilated by maintaining the gas ratio which can be done by adding external fresh air. Lastly, the system controls the air movement that is supplied in a space which ensures that those in the place are comfortable. The following are the basic components of an HVAC system and the role they play to keep the condition suitable.


This is the largest and the main component of the commercial HVAC system. It heats the air that is supplied the system; this can be done through the heat pump, solar energy, or the burning of the natural gasses. Inside the furnace, there is a heat exchanger which helps to switch on when the furnace is activated. It pulls the cold air and heats and circulates the air out through the vents.


The thermostat can either be set manually or programmed in advance to the desired temperature. It is easily visible and accessible part of the system. The thermostat can trigger the heat exchanger or evaporator coil-condensing unit to circulate a space with cold or warm air.

Evaporator Coil

This helps to cool the heated air. It is connected to the condensing unit which is filled with refrigerant gas. The unit is usually installed outside the room. It pumps the condensed liquid to the evaporator coil which is evaporated to gas again.

Refrigerant Lines

This unit carries the refrigerant substance to the condensing unit for vaporization and returns it to the evaporator in liquid form. They are narrow tubes usually resistant to heating and cooling.


This unit transports the cooled or the heated air across the room. The ducts are made of lightweight aluminum. The ductwork is connected to the vent that transfers cooled or heated air to individual rooms. They are usually located near the ceiling and are fronted with angled slats. They can be manually controlled to regulate the heating or cooling of the space that they are directed.

Frequently Asked Questions on HVAC System

Q: What is full form of HVAC?

The full form of HVAC is Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

Q What is HVAC meaning?

HAVC is a system used for conditioning air. HVAC meaning is Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning system.

Q: What is the purpose of an HVAC system?

The purpose of an HVAC system is to provide ventilation and maintain temperature and humidity in area.

Q: What are the components of an HVAC system?

An HVAC system contains many components including heating unit, cooling unit, ventilation system, filters, temperature control system and some other components like humidifiers etc.

Q: What are the benefits of an HVAC system?

HVAC systems are very beneficial for pharmaceuticals as they help to maintain the cleanliness of the area and required classified area class that is not easy to achieve without HVAC systems. It also helps to maintain air quality, temperature and humidity.

Q: How does an HVAC system work?

HVAC system takes the indoor air and clean it by filtering, condition it by heating or cooling as required, add some fresh air and again supply the air through ducting to the area. 

Q: What are the different types of HVAC systems?

There are mainly three types of HVAC systems, split HVAC system, packaged HVAC system and ductless HVAC system.

Q: What is the role of the heating unit in an HVAC system?

Heating unit helps to increase the temperature of the area during cold weather. It can use any energy source like electricity, oil or gas to generate heat as per requirement of the weather.

Q: What is the role of the cooling unit in an HVAC system?

Cooling unit helps to decrease the temperature of the area during the hot weather. Cool air is circulated in the area to mainteing the comfortable environment in the area. 

Q: What is the purpose of ventilation in an HVAC system?

Vantilation is important in area to remove the pollutants and maintain the area with fresh air. it maintains the good indoor air quality, dilutes the contaminants and provides proper air supply in the area by air circulation.

Q: How does an HVAC system improve indoor air quality?

HVAC system improves air quality of area by circulating air and adding fresh arie to the system. It remove dust particles and microorganisms by filtering the air through very fine HEPA filters. HVAC system helps in maintaining temperature and humidity and makes the area comfertable.

Q: How does an HVAC system control temperature?

HVAC system controls the temperature using thermostat that automatically control the cooling and heating coils. Hot or cool air is circulated in the area according to the set temperature and the desired temperature is achieved.

Q: What are the energy efficiency considerations for HVAC systems?

HVAC system has very high operating cost. It is important to reduce the energy consumption to reduce the operating cose. Highily efficient equipment, proper duct sealing, dust insulation and regular maintenance can help to make the HVAC system energy efficient.

Q: How often should HVAC systems be serviced?

To ensure the better performance of the HVAC system regular maintenance and serviceing play an important role. It is recommended to have proper maintenance once in a year by professional service engineer.

Q: Are there regulations and standards for HVAC systems?

Yes, there are regulation and standards for HVAC system to ensure the safety and efficiency. Guidelines may vary by country or region for safety and efficiency ratings and indoor air quality.

Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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3 comments: Post Yours! Read Comment Policy ▼

  1. hi dear thank u this document is very useful for me

  2. Insightful and hope you keep sharing such wonderful information with us


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