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Basics of HVAC System

HVAC system is a basic requirement of a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility. It has different parts those help to maintain the required temperature and humidity in the manufacturing area.
Air conditioning has changed over the years, the HVAC system is used to control the environment in the manufacturing as well as the storage area of the pharmaceutical facility. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning is a system that is used to control the air temperature by controlling the air filtration and the moisture in the air. 

What is HVAC System?
An HVAC system is Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning system. That is used to conditioning air in a big area where a usual air conditioner cannot be used. It contains a boiler, chiller cooling tower and air handling unit.

This system is used to control the temperature of a designated space with the control of the moisture in the air, supply the area with fresh air by controlling the carbon dioxide and oxygen level. It also controls the contamination of airborne particles by regulating the movement of air.

Flow Chart of HVAC System

The HVAC system can effectively control the air conditions of a given parameter through heating by adding the thermal energy in an area to increase the temperature; the cooling is done through decreasing the thermal energy in an area to decrease the temperature. Humidifying is done by adding steam or water vapor in an area to increase the relative humidity while dehumidifying is done through getting rid of the humidity or water vapor in an area.

The air is cleaned by removing the smoke, dust or pollens that contaminate the air. The air is ventilated by maintaining the gas ratio which can be done by adding external fresh air. Lastly, the system controls the air movement that is supplied in a space which ensures that those in the place are comfortable. The following are the basic components of an HVAC system and the role they play to keep the condition the suitable;

This is the largest and the main component of the commercial HVAC system. It heats the air that is supplied the system; this can be done through the heat pump, solar energy, or the burning of the natural gasses. Inside the furnace, there is a heat exchanger which helps to switch on when the furnace is activated. It pulls the cold air and heats and circulates the air out through the vents.

The thermostat can either be set manually or programmed in advance to the desired temperature. It is easily visible and accessible part of the system. The thermostat can trigger the heat exchanger or evaporator coil-condensing unit to circulate a space with cold or warmed air.

Evaporator Coil
This helps to cool the heated air. It is connected to the condensing unit which is filled with refrigerant gas. The unit is usually installed outside the room. It pumps the condensed liquid to the evaporator coil which is evaporated to gas again.

Refrigerant lines
This unit carries the refrigerant substance to the condensing unit for vaporization and returns it to the evaporator in liquid form. They are narrow tubes usually resistant to heating and cooling.

This unit transports the cooled or the heated air across the room. The ducts are made of lightweight aluminum. The ductwork is connected with the vent that transfer cooled or heated air to individual rooms. They are usually located near the ceiling and are fronted with angled slats. The can be manually controlled to regulate the heating or cooling of space that they are directed.

Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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3 comments: Post Yours! Read Comment Policy ▼

  1. hi dear thank u this document is very useful for me

  2. Insightful and hope you keep sharing such wonderful information with us


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