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Basic Life Processes, Homeostasis and Basic Human Anatomical Terminology

A living animal is characterized by seven life processes. There are several chemical and physical reactions within the human body.
Basic life processes
A living animal is characterized by seven life processes.

There are several chemical and physical reactions within the human body that are referred to as metabolic processes. Growth, repair, reaction, and reproduction are all functions of metabolism. A metabolic rate, or heat production, can also be referred to as the amount of energy produced throughout 24 hours.

Detection and response to environmental changes in the body.

The motion of an entire body, an organ, a single cell, even an organelle.

The production of new cells to grow, repairs, replace, or make someone new.

Unspecialized cells are transformed into specialized ones. For example – egg into the fetus.

Size increase; increase in the number of, or size of, cells or the material surrounding cells.

The function of homeostasis is to adjust to changing circumstances to maintain stability. Changing metabolic processes may involve external or internal factors, and the body must adapt accordingly. During homeostasis, the body automatically performs routinely coordinated actions to maintain a relatively constant internal environment along various dimensions, including temperature, blood pH, blood ions concentrations, blood glucose concentration, and waste product concentrations.

Even though molecules and energy continuously enter and leave the body, this internal environment remains consistent. Variables like these (and others) usually oscillate in a narrow range. To increase values when they fall too low or to lower values when they rise too high, the body uses negative feedback (almost exclusively). When a body offers "negative" feedback, it opposes the stress. As a result, the body is in a dynamic equilibrium since it constantly changes and fluctuates (oscillates) within relatively narrow limits.

A stimulus is detected by the receptors when they detect changes in these physiological variables. Through an afferent pathway, the stimulus is transmitted to a central integrating unit (e.g. the brain). During integration, By comparing the stimulus and setpoint, the integrating center determines the normal level for the variable. Messages are sent to effect or organs via the efferent pathway if a response is needed. Effectors generate responses that move the variable value back toward the set point. Altering breathing, heart rate or blood pressure; constricting or dilating vessels; consuming and secreting fluids are examples of responses.
For example – thermoregulation, blood glucose regulation, calcium homeostasis, osmoregulation, etc!

Human anatomical terminology
Body cavities
There are two major cavities in human anatomy: the dorsal cavity (posterior) and the ventral cavity (anterior).

Dorsal cavity
It includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity, which collectively form the dorsal cavity. No walls or boundaries are dividing the dorsal cavity; that is, the subdivisions are continuous. In the cranial cavity, the brain is enclosed by the skull. By its nature, the spinal cord resides in the cavity of the backbone (spine). In the brain and spinal cord, meninges cover cavities as they surround the brain and spinal cord.

Ventral cavity
The diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity inside the ventral cavity. The diaphragm is the large muscle that forms the dome of the respiratory system. it is the wall that divides thoracic and abdominal cavities. It has oesophageal and large blood vessel openings. It could be regarded as part of the abdominal cavity, depending on how you define it. The heart and lungs are among the organs of the thoracic cavity. Lungs and the chest wall are lined by the visceral pleura and parietal pleura, respectively. In the heart, the pericardium forms serous membranes lining the chambers. A fibrous pericardial sac is lined by the parietal pericardium, and the heart muscle is covered by the visceral pericardium. Aside from the liver and stomach, the abdominal cavity contains the intestines. Pelvic cavities are inferior to abdominal cavities. The pelvic cavity is not lined by the peritoneum, which covers pelvic organs. A woman's uterus and a man's prostate gland are examples of organs that are located within the pelvic cavity.

Planes and section
An organ, body part, or section of an organ is often cut appealingly to make parts of it visible in anatomical descriptions. Anatomically, planes are used to illustrate internal anatomy by separating bodies or organs into specific sections or cuts, to clearly illustrate particular structures. There is also an organ called a plane which is the surface that separates two pieces of the body.
Frontal section - The body is divided into front and back parts by the front (coronal) section.
Sagittal section - Split between right and left sides by a plane from front to back. In the midsagittal plane, each half is equal.
Transverse section -- upper and lower portions of the body are separated by a horizontal plane.
Cross-section - An organ's long axis is perpendicular to its cross-section. A cross-section indicates a tube (small intestine) with a cavity in the middle.
In the longitudinal section, the organ's long axis is considered.

Whenever an external and internal change occurs in the body, all organs work together to produce homeostasis, the healthy state of the body. Posteriorly, there is the dorsal cavity (posterior) and anteriorly, there is the ventral cavity (anterior). In the ventral cavity, peritoneum lining the walls of your abdominal cavity, mesentery lining the organ's surface while folded around them.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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