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Levels of Structural Organization and Human Body Systems

Human bodies are layered structurally and functionally on an increasing scale of complexity.
Structural Organization
Human bodies are layered structurally and functionally on an increasing scale of complexity. They are given as:
Chemical
There are two major categories of chemicals in the body: inorganic and organic. Inorganic chemicals, by definition, are those that contain an element apart from carbon. For example – water (H2O), O2, etc. Often organic chemistry is quite complex and it always contains carbon and hydrogen. For example – carbohydrates, fats, lipids, etc!
Cells
Organisms are built of functional and structural units called cells. Although human cells come in many shapes and sizes, they all share certain similarities.

Tissues
It is defined as a collection of similar cells that perform the same functions and share the same structure. Tissues fall into four categories:
  1. Epithelial tissue
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Nerve tissue
  4. Muscle tissue
Organs
In the human body, organs are tissues arranged precisely to perform specific tasks. For example – lungs, liver, kidneys, etc. Epithelial tissues, or surface tissues, are responsible for absorption in the kidneys.

Organ systems / human body systems
In organ systems, several organs work together to accomplish some tasks. For example – the excretory system, lymphatic system, etc.
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There are 11 types of organ system in the body that includes:
1. Integumentary system - It acts as a barrier against pathogens and chemicals. Ensures water is not lost excessively.
The organs in this system are – skin and subcutaneous tissue.

2. Skeletal system - The red bone marrow and internal organs are protected by this system. It also contributes to the movement of muscles. By supporting the body, it provides comfort.
The organs in this system are – bones and ligaments.

3. Muscular system - This makes the skeleton move. It is responsible for heat production in the body.
The organs in this system are – muscles and tendons.

4. Nervous system - Sensory information is interpreted through the nervous system. It controls body functions through electrochemical impulses, including movement.
The organs in this system are – brain, eyes, nerves, ears.

5. Endocrine system - Several body functions are controlled by this hormone, including growth and reproduction. Hormones are responsible for regulating metabolism on a day-to-day basis.
The organs in this system are – pancreas, pituitary gland, thyroid glands.

6. Circulatory system - Furthermore, it removes waste products from tissues as well as providing oxygen and nutrients.
The organs in this system are – heart, blood, and arteries.

7. Lymphatic system - The process of returning tissue fluid to the blood takes place through the lymphatic system. Provides immunity by destroying pathogens that enter the body.
The organs in this system are – spleen and lymph nodes.

8. Respiratory system - During breathing, oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide from the blood.
The organs in this system are – lungs, trachea, larynx, and diaphragm.

9. Digestive system - A simple chemical process that converts food into simple chemicals that can be absorbed and utilized by the body.
The organs in this system are – stomach, colon, liver, pancreas.

10. Urinary system - It helps in getting rid of waste products in the blood. Ensures blood and tissue fluid volume and pH are maintained.
The organs in this system are – urethra, urinary bladder, kidneys.

11. Reproductive system - The production of eggs or sperm takes place in the reproductive system. In women, it provides a site for embryo and fetus development.
The organs in this system are – female – ovaries, uterus. Male – testes, prostate gland.

Conclusion
Some organs belong to two organ systems. For instance, the pancreas functions both as a digestive and as an endocrine organ, and the diaphragm is a muscular and a respiratory organ.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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