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Acidifiers: Ammonium chloride and Dil. HCl

Inorganic chemicals that acidify the environment are known as acidifiers. Chemicals in these products increase the amount of gastric acid produced.

Acidifiers

Inorganic chemicals that acidify the environment are known as acidifiers. Chemicals in these products increase the amount of gastric acid produced in the stomach when eaten, resulting in lower stomach pH. In addition to these types of acidifiers, there are three general kinds:
  • First, acidifiers for the stomach are used to control the stomach's pH.
  • Second, urinary acidifiers maintain the pH of urine.
  • Finally, all body parts can be controlled with systemic acidifiers.

Ammonium chloride

The molecular formula of ammonium chloride – NH4Cl
Synonym – Sal ammoniac
Mild acidity is a property of ammonium chloride solutions.
It is odorless and tastes like cooling saline. It has an appearance of – white solid. It is hygroscopic.
Solubility - Easily soluble in water, glycerol, but not fully soluble in ethanol. It has a melting point of 338° C.

Assay

Prepare a solution containing 0.1g of NH4Cl and dissolve it in 20ml of water. Combine this solution with 5ml of neutralized formaldehyde solution and 20ml of water. To determine the number of titers, 0.1N NaOH is titrated against phenolphthalein after 2 minutes. A pale pink color appears at the end of the experiment. As a rule, every ml of 0.1N NaOH can be converted into 0.005349 g of NH4Cl.

Uses

  • When used in cough medicine, ammonium chloride serves as an expectorant. Ammonium chloride's expectorant effect is caused by its irritative properties.
  • There is an increase in excess respiratory tract fluid when bacteria are present on the bronchial mucosa, facilitating coughing.
  • It is known that ammonium salts irritate the stomach mucosa, causing nausea and vomiting.
  • The ammonium chloride that is used as a treatment for severe metabolic alkalosis is a systemic acidifier.
  • Ammonium chloride is primarily used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen.
  • Fluxes such as ammonium chloride are used to prepare metal for tin coating, galvanizing, or soldering.
An extremely closed container should be used for storage.

Dose – a regular amount should contain 1-2gms of products. (It acts as a systemic acidifier) or 0.3-0.5gms of the product (It acts as an expectorant).

Dil. HCL

Formulation – HCl10% w/w
Spirit of salt is the name that is most commonly used for hydrochloric acid. The solution consists of hydrogen chloride aqueous in water and has a concentration of not less than 35% w/w and not more than 40%.

Preparations

  • There's an action of sulphuric acid on sodium chloride for its manufacturing process to start and continue. First, the calculated amount of sodium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid is heated on the cast ion pans of a salt cake furnace. After the formation of hydrochloric acid, it is passed on the tower, which is then sprayed with water. At the bottom is the diluted hydrochloric acid. The solution is then circulated again to the building for more hydrogen chloride to be absorbed to become more concentrated. There is then purification of that acid. Finally, hydrogen chloride gas is produced by mixing NaHSO4 formed with more sodium chloride and heating it vigorously in a muffle furnace.
NaCl + H2SO4 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐→NaHSO4 + HCl

NaHSO4 + NaCl‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐→ Na2SO4 +HCl

  • A large amount of hydrogen and chlorine are produced as by-products when sodium chloride solution is electrolyzed to make caustic soda. Hydrogen chloride is the result of combining these gases.
H2 + Cl2 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐→ 2HCl

Properties

  • Colorless and strongly acidic, it is a liquid.
  • The alcohol's specific gravity is 1.18, which makes it miscible with water
  • Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that attacks metals and forms their hydrochlorides as hydrogen gas is released.
  • This compound is very strongly acidic to litmus, even at high dilute levels.

Assay

40 mL of water are added to a stoppered flask containing 4 g of HCl. Using Methyl orange as an indicator, we titrate the solution with 1 N NaOH.

NaOH + HCl‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐→ NaCl + H2O

Storage

It should be kept at a temperature not exceeding 30°C in well-closed containers made of glass or other materials.

Uses

  • It is primarily used to create an acidifying effect or as a pharmaceutical aid.
  • In gastric juice, when hydrochloric acid levels are low, it is used as a gastric acidifier.
  • Solvent and catalyst in basic pharmaceuticals, and acidifier externally.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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