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Classification and Structure of Tissues

Organs in which tissues are located can function properly because of these issues. Size, shape, and function determine how these cells are classified.
Normally, tissues are grouped based on their structure and function. Organs in which tissues are located can function properly because of these issues. Size, shape, and function determine how these cells are classified. There are four major classifications of tissues. Each of the four tissue types is composed of epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue.

Epithelial tissue
The epithelium covers outer surfaces (outer surfaces) or lines internal surfaces. They are supplied with oxygen and nutrients by the blood supply of the connective tissue below them, as they lack capillaries of their own. In addition to being capable of secretion, these tissues may also be called glands or glandular epithelium. To ensure that underlying structures are protected from a variety of dangers, the epithelium has a vital function, including ensuring that they are hydrated, chemically and mechanically damaged, secreted, and absorbed.

A thin layer of intercellular substance, referred to as the matrix, separates the cells. Basement membranes are made by epithelial cells, and they are generally placed on a connective tissue called a basement membrane. A tissue's cellular composition, characteristic shape, and several layers determine the epithelial tissues' classification.

Those with squamous cells have a flat surface, those with cuboidal cells have cube shapes, and those with columnar cells have a tall, narrow profile. Stratified cellular structures have multiple layers of cells, whereas simple cellular structures have only one layer.

Simple Epithelium
Each epithelium is composed of an identical layer of cells and can be further divided into three types. There are usually only a few on surfaces that absorb or secrete. Usually, only a few are on surfaces that are under stress. The shape of cells determines which type of cell they are categorized into, based on their function. The cells in higher-activity tissues are taller.
⦁ Squamous epithelium
⦁ Cuboidal epithelium
⦁ Columnar epithelium

Stratified Epithelia
A stratified epithelium is composed of layers of different shaped cells that are arranged in layers. As the cells divide continuously into the lower (basal) layers, they are forced to grow toward the surface, where they are shed. Membranes are typically absent in basements. The stratified epithelium is essential in protecting underlying soft tissues against mechanical damage. Transitional and stratified squamous carcinomas can be distinguished.

Connective tissue
Our bodies are made up of a large amount of connective tissue. Compared to epithelial tissues, connective tissue cells are separated from one another by a greater distance, and there is significantly more intercellular substance (matrix) present. Areolar, adipose, fibrous and elastic tissues are some of the types of connective tissues, along with blood, bone, and cartilage. In addition to cells, all connective tissues contain a matrix. In a matrix, non-living intercellular material coordinates and constitutes the structure. Every connective tissue has a different type of matrix. In tissues with fibrous connections, the matrix is a semisolid jellylike consistency or a dense and rigid structure that depends on the position and function of the tissue. Fibers serve as a support system for attaching cells. The majority of connective tissues have an adequate blood supply. Connective tissue plays the following vital functions: binding, structural support, protection, transport, insulation.

Cells present in connective tissue
All organs containing specialized tissues contain connective tissue, excluding blood. In addition to fibroblasts, fat cells, macrophages, leukocytes, and mast cells, there are many types of cells involved in the process.

Muscle tissue
Throughout the body, muscle tissue can contract and relax, permitting movement. A sufficient blood supply is necessary for the supply of oxygen, calcium, and nutrients, as well as for the removal of waste products. Muscle fibers can be divided into three types: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.

Nervous tissue
Nerve tissue contains nerve cells called neurons, as well as certain specialized cells unique to the nervous system. The nervous system does not only include the central nervous system (CNS) but also includes the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Besides the brain, the central nervous system also includes the spinal cord in addition. It consists of neurons and special cells called neuroglia. All of the nerves moving from the CNS and supplying the rest of the body are found in the PNS. They are made of neurons and Schwann cells, which are specialized. Myelin sheath is formed by Schwann cells for electrically insulating neurons. Electrochemical impulses can be produced and transmitted by neurons. The basic structure for all neurons is the same, regardless of how many different kinds there are.

For a neuron to survive, its cell body contains its nucleus. Axons are processes that carry impulses away from cell bodies; most neurons have one axon. Dendrites are the impulse-carrying pathways that lead from a neuron to a cell. In a neuron, nerve impulses travel along the cell membrane and are electrical; however, a synapse is a small space where neurons meet, which electrical impulses cannot cross. The transmission of impulses at a synapse depends on chemicals called neurotransmitters that travel between an axon and dendrite.

The nervous system consists of two types of tissues: excitable neurons that facilitate, receive, transmit, and maintain information; and non-excitable glia that supports the neurons.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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