Definition and Preparation of Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions : Pharmaguideline -->

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Definition and Preparation of Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions

Syrups - Hot process, Elixers - Non-medicated, Medicated, Liniments - Camphor and Soap Liniment, Chloroform Liniment, Lotions - Calamine lotion.



Synthetic sucrose syrups are concentrated solutions of sucrose in water that are sweet and viscous.

Sucrose is 66.7% by weight when mixed with water (100 ml) in simple syrup I.P.

In simple syrup - 85% of the syrup is sucrose (w/v). The syrup is prepared in 100 ml of purified water.

Medicated syrup - A medicinal or therapeutic syrup that contains active ingredients. Example – cough syrup

Flavored syrup - Syrup flavored with flavorings, but not medicinal substances. Example – mango syrup.


Physical characteristics and chemical composition of the substance determine which method to use.

Hot process

Active constituents that are neither volatile nor heat-labile are subjected to this method.

1. Procedure

  • In a beaker, we weigh out the sucrose.
  • It is mixed with purified water.
  • Until a solution is obtained, the bath is heated in water (less than 70°C).
  • Then, any impurities are removed with a filter.
  • A volume of the product is made to the standard – q.s.
The inversion of sucrose may be caused by excessive heat.

2. Percolation

  • Percolator is filled with sucrose.
  • As water passes through sucrose, the sucrose dissolves.
  • A thick cotton cloth is placed at the front of the percolator.
  • Cotton regulates percolation rate, and dissolution rate is controlled by dissolution rate.
  • q.s. is made up of the residual solution when complete dissolution has occurred.

3. Agitation without heat

Components whose heat lability can be controlled
  • All ingredients are properly weighed, including sucrose.
  • Pure water is used for dissolving the ingredients.
  • The syrup should be stored in a bottle twice as large as the syrup followed by constant stirring.
  • Approximately equal volumes of syrup are prepared.

4. Syrups may be flavored or medicated by adding liquids

The syrup is prepared in this way when fluid extracts, tinctures, or other liquids need to be added.
  • Adding alcohol dissolves resinous and oily substances.
  • Alcohol is also used to preserve.



Generally speaking, liquid elixirs are considered clear, aromatic, sweetened, hydroalcoholic beverages that are designed to be consumed orally.
  • In addition to being palatable, they can provide a means of administering potent or nauseous drugs.
  • A syrup may contain less or no sucrose, while an elixir is less sweet and less viscous.
  • Elixirs have greater stability than syrups, so are preferred over syrups.
  • Elixirs contain between 4 and 40 percent alcohol (ethanol).
  • The substance can be used to increase the solubility of medicaments or to sweeten them.
  • The elixirs may also include flavoring and coloring agents for flavoring and coloring purposes.
  • In elixirs, preservatives are not needed because the alcohol content contains enough preservatives.


Non-medicated - The flavoring agent is non-medicated and does not contain any medicament.
Example – aromatic elixir

Medicated - Medicine: Medicine containing antibiotics, antihistamines, sedatives, and other potent drugs.


  • Simple dissolutions or mixtures of two or more liquids can be used to prepare elixirs after the ingredients have been dissolved in their respective solvents. Those that are alcohol-soluble will dissolve in alcohol, and those that are water-soluble will dissolve in water.
  • Aqueous solutions are added to alcoholic solutions to maintain the strength of the alcohol.
  • Once the desired volume has been reached (q.s.), the mixture is made into ice cream.
  • In this stage, some of the flavoring agents can separate from the product due to the reduction in alcohol strength.
  • Once the elixir is allowed to stand for a while, oil globules begin to precipitate.
  • The filtrate is then added.
  • The excess oils are absorbed by talc.
  • The resulting product is clear after filtration.



In lines or lotions, a few substances are combined in oil or emulsion, or they can contain liquefied soap or soap alcohol. Embrocation was once used with rubbing to treat affected areas, which is why they are still sometimes called that.

There are now no official dental liniments, which are pastes containing active substances rubbed into the gums. The oil and soap base of liniments make the application and rubbing easier, and they provide ease of application. These penetrations are more rapid when compared to oil-based liniments. The oily liniments do not have as strong an effect, but they are more effective when massage is desired. Depending on the composition of the preparation, some liniments are intended primarily as protective coatings for the skin. Liquid liniments should be avoided on bruised areas and broken skin. In their preparations, liniments usually contain salicylates, menthols, and Camphors.


Examples of some of the formulations

1. Camphor and Soap Liniment

Other names - There are also other names for this product, such as Camphorae et SaponisLinimentum, and Liquid Opoderdoc.
Formula Quantity
Camphor, in small pieces45g
Soap, dried, and granulated60g
Rosemary oil 10ml
Alcohol 700ml
Purified water q.sq.s to make 1000ml

Preparation -

Pour alcohol in which the camphor and rosemary oil are dissolved. Combine the alcohol with the soap and enough pure water to make up 1000ml. Let it sit for 24 hours to rest at room temperature. Dissolve the soap in the water, strain, and set aside in a cool place.

Uses - Applied topically for sprains, bruises, and rheumatism, it is an irritant, a rubefacient, and a weak local anesthetic. Used as the base for other liniments.

Special remarks - If you use animal and/or vegetable oils, you will cause gelatinization. If you are going to use soap shaving, be sure to dry them thoroughly before passing them through a mill or grater.

2. Chloroform Liniment

Other names - Its other name is Linimentum Chloroformi
Chloroform 300ml
Camphor and soap liniment700ml
To make1000ml

Preparations -

Prepare by stirring the ingredients together

Uses - Applied to the skin as an anti-irritative and rubefacient to decrease irritation caused by certain types of myalgia, neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and a variety of joint diseases and conditions.


Definition and general information

Liquid suspensions or dispersions that are applied externally to the body are lotions. Several methods can be used to prepare them:

Add additional liquid if you need to add larger quantities, or triturate first and then add the remaining liquid phase to get a smooth paste. Calamine Lotion is a classic example of this since it is composed of finely powdered insoluble solids suspended by dispersants, surface-active agents, and/or suspending agents.

In liquids, chemical reactions occur. White Lotion, for example, should be freshly made and not contain suspending agents. Lotions are available that are stabilized with a substance recognized by the USP XVII in addition to O/W lotions. Examples of such lotions include Benzoic Acid Lotion. While some lotions are clear solutions, one official lotion, dimethisoqun hydrochloride lotion, contains an active ingredient that floats in water.

The application of lotions is usually frictionless. The finely divided insoluble matter is more soothing to inflamed areas and more effective when contacted with infected surfaces, so finely divided particles are best. It is possible to add a variety of ingredients to the lotion to improve its dispersion or its cooling, soothing, drying, or protective characteristics. Among the good suspending agents is bentonite. The sodium carboxymethylcellulose or methylcellulose in the cellulose matrix will help localize the active ingredient and hold it in place at the affected site. The skin is kept moisturized for a considerable amount of time when it contains glycerine. If alcohol is added to the formula, the effects will be enhanced.

Among the most common lotions prescribed by dermatologists are those that contain anesthetics, antibiotics, astringents, germicides, protective agents, and screening agents intended for treating and preventing skin disease and dermatitis. Among the most common lotions prescribed by dermatologists are those that contain anesthetics, antibiotics, astringents, germicides, protective agents, and screening agents intended for treating and preventing skin disease and dermatitis. To prevent lotions from stratifying or separating, they need the "shake well" label. The phrase "For External Use Only" should be listed on all lotion packages.


For example -
Calamine lotion
Another name is – lotiocalamine
Formula Quantity
Calamine 80g
Zinc oxide80g
Glycerine 20ml
Bentonite magma 20ml
Calcium hydroxide solution q.s. q.s to make 1000 ml

The bentonite magma should be diluted with calcium hydroxide solution in an equal volume. Using about 100mL of dilute magma, thoroughly mix the powders with the glycerine, tribulation until a smooth, uniform paste is obtained. Defining the powders completely is not possible. To make 1000ml of the solution, add enough calcium hydroxide solution.

Uses -
The use of this product is to astringe and protect.

Note - Before dispensing lotions, shake them thoroughly. Adding more bentonite magma to the mixture will give it a viscous consistency, but not more than 400ml.
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