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Definition and Preparation of Ear Drops, Nasal Drops and Enemas

Nasal drops (Definition and preparations), Nasal antihistamines and decongestants, Nasal lubricants and irrigations, Enema (Definition and preparation

Ear drops (Definition and preparation)

An installation of liquid medication that treats infections of the external ear canal or loosens ear wax!
When there is excessive cerumen (ear wax), or when there is an ear infection, inflammation, or pain, ear preparations are usually applied in small amounts by drops into the ear canal. It is the auricle that acts as an opening to the ear. it is enclosed by the ear lobe. Starting at the auricle and ending at the tympanic membrane, the external auditory canal is located in the ear

In the external auditory canal, the cerumen consists of sweat and sebaceous gland secretions. The secretions from a sticky semisolid when allowed to dry, hold shed epithelial cells, fallen hairs, dust, and other foreign objects that travel into the ear canal. Itching, pain, and hearing loss may be caused by excessive cerumen in the ear. An otologic examination can also be impeded. If earwax is not regularly removed, it can become impacted and become harder and more painful to remove.

To facilitate cumulate removal, light mineral oil, vegetable oil, and hydrogen peroxide were commonly used as softeners. Recent developments in synthetic surfactant solutions have allowed them to effectively remove earwax. A typical cerumen removal procedure involves placing an eardrop or a cotton plug in the ear canal while the head is tilted at a 45 ° angle, followed by a lukewarm water flushing using a rubber syringe.

Often, treatments are prescribed for the inflammation and pruritus associated with ear infections and accompanying allergic symptoms, such as liquid hydrocortisone and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Physicians may prefer and prescribe corticosteroids as ointments packaged in eye tubes in this latter instance. Small amounts of the ointment can be placed easily in the ear canal with these packages. The double-purpose nature of these products is often indicated by their eye and ear labels.

As an alternative to antibiotics and steroids for treating otitis externa, boric acid 2.75% in isopropyl alcohol is also used. Both are 2% acetic acid in aluminum acetate solution. In addition to the drugs, the vehicles also contribute to reacidifying the ear canal. Keeping the ear canal dry keeps the growth of the microorganisms in check, usually P. aeruginosa. Pharmacy technicians can make in-house solutions containing acetic acid 2% to 2.5%, as needed, with rubbing alcohol (70% isopropyl alcohol or ethanol), propylene glycol, or anhydrous glycerine.

Alternatively, acetic acid dissolved in either ethanol or propylene glycol has been recommended for use in the ear. Glacial Acetic Acid, USP, and Acetic Acid, NF are both acceptable sources of acetic acid for ear treatment. This substance is safe to use on the skin but can be toxic when absorbed through broken skin. Typically it is not used for children whose eardrums have burst. Infections of the ear or swollen or inflamed ear tissue frequently cause ear pain. This pain is usually more severe than it needs to be. Even a slight irritation of the ear canal can cause serious pain and discomfort due to its narrow shape. Aspirin and other anti-infectives, such as creams and lotions, are generally prescribed, together with topical analgesics, to combat the cause of the pain.

Antipyrine 54 mg, benzocaine 14 mg, dehydrated glycerine 10 mL are the common medicines used for ear pain, and they contain both the analgesic antipyrine and the local anesthetic benzocaine. Additionally, the hygroscopic vehicles draw moisture into the vehicle, resulting in less swelling, in addition to reducing pain and the growth of microorganisms in the swollen body parts. The preparations have been used to treat symptoms related to acute otitis media. It may be necessary to preserve liquid otic preparations from microbial growth, depending on the specific preparation. When preservation is needed, chloro-butanol 0.5%, thimerosal 0.01%, and paraben combinations are frequently used. Powered otic formulations may also contain antioxidants like sodium bisulfite or other stabilizers if required. Ear preparations are usually packed in glass, plastic, or metal bottles with droppers.

Nasal drops (Definition and preparations)

Medicine droppers are used to insert nasal drops into the nostrils with medicated liquid formulations. Applied to the nose, nasal preparations treat conditions of the nose and complaints of the nose. Some examples of these are nasal steroids, nasal lubricants, antihistamines, decongestants, as well as antibiotics, which treat symptoms of hay fever, congestion, and infection. The preparations available for nasal irrigation include sprays, drops, ointments, creams, and creams.

Nasal antihistamines and decongestants

A nasal antihistamine or decongestant is a medicine that contains an antihistamine or decongestant in a device designed to be used under the nose.

As a result of exposure to allergens, histamine is released by cells. Antihistamines block histamine's action. As a result of nasal antihistamine treatment, allergic symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing, or postnasal drip are relieved.

Decongestants reduce swelling within the nose by constricting dilated blood vessels, allowing air to flow more freely and relieving congestion.

Nasal lubricants and irrigations

Neither nasal lubricants nor irrigations are in the form of fluids. Products like these are used to treat irritating or drying nasal passages, such as those associated with hay fever, colds, and other conditions. As well as being used for nasal surgery, they are also used to clean the inside of the nostrils.

Nasal steroids

Medications called nasal steroids (also known as nasal corticosteroids) contain glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, or triamcinolone in nasal preparations. Among other benefits of corticosteroids, they can reduce inflammation, especially allergies-induced inflammation. Symptoms such as nasal congestion, blocked nasal passages, mucus production, and swelling in the nasal passage are improved by nasal steroids used in conditions such as hay fever. Nasal corticosteroids have been shown to reduce nasal sensitivities to pollen, animal dander, and dust mites.

Enema (Definition and preparations)

To clean the rectum, empty the bowels, or medicate, an enema is injected into the abdominal region as a liquid. Emptying the bowel using evacuation enemas is performed via rectal injection. There may be a need to administer laxatives and enemas depending on the intensity of the blockage. To clean the rectum, empty the bowels, or medicate, an enema is injected into the abdominal region as a liquid.

There are many types of preparations in enema which are stated below

Cleansing enema

A cleansing enema is water-based and held for a short time in the rectum to flush out the colon. Following injection, the medication is retained for a few minutes as your body eliminates the fluid along with loose matter in your intestinal tract.

Here are a few commonly used cleansing enemas
Water/saline - When using sodium water or water that mimics your body's sodium concentration, you will experience the least irritation and the results will be used primarily to expand the colon and to promote defecation mechanically.

Epsom salt - In the same way as a saline or water enema, Epsom salt contains magnesium salts that are reportedly more effective at relaxing bowel muscles and relieving constipation.

Sodium phosphate - Enema such as this, which is over the counter, functions by irritating your rectum and leading to it expanding and releasing waste.

Lemon juice - The combination of lemon juice and warm, filtered water is said to balance your pH level and cleanse your colon.

Apple cider vinegar - Apple cider vinegar can quickly clear your bowels and also act as an antiviral on your digestive system when mixed with warm, filtered water, according to some specialists.

Soap-suds - Adding mild soaps to water, such as castile soap, can mildly irritate the bowels, causing the stool to be excreted more quickly.

Retention enema

Retention enemas aim to retain the fluid for a long time in the bowel - usually at least 15 minutes - before releasing it. Enemas that soften your stool and help your body expel it are often oil-based or water-based.

Remapping involves a variety of treatments, including:

Coffee - The purpose of coffee enemas is to remove bile from the colon by brewing caffeinated coffee and mixing it with water. Maxim Gerson, a physician who specialized in treating cancer patients, is credited with popularizing these forms of treatment.

Mineral oil - A colon enema functions by lubricating, sealing, and promoting the evacuation of waste from your colon.

Probiotic - A combination of probiotics with water may aid digestion while colonizing the gut with good bacteria. Lactobacillus reuteri enemas are proven to be beneficial for children suffering from ulcerative colitis.Herbal - Several people have been using herbal enemas to reduce inflammation, increase their immunity, and treat infections using herbs such as garlic, catnip tea, and red raspberry leaf in conjunction with water.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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