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Meninges, Ventricles of Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, Pia Mater, Lateral Ventricles, Third Ventricle, Fourth Ventricle, Central epithelial duct, Subarachnoid cisterns.

Meninges

The membrane seeks advice from the membranous coverings of the brain and neural structure. There are a unit of 3 layers of membrane, called the meninges, arachnoid mater, and meninx.

These coverings have 2 major functions:
  • Provide a corroboratory framework for the cerebral and bone vasculature.
  • Acting with body fluid to guard the system from mechanical harm.
The membrane area unit typically concerned cerebral pathology, as a typical site of infection (meningitis), and intracranial bleeds.

Dura mater

Located directly beneath the bones of the skull and spinal column, the meninges are the outer layer of the membrane. It's thick, tough, and nonprotractile.

The meninges consist of 2 stratified sheets of connective tissue:

There is a layer of periosteal tissue covering the inner surface of each skull bone.

Meningeal layer – placed deep into the periosteal layer. it's continuous with the meninges of the medulla spinalis.

In between the 2 layers of meninges are the meanings of blood vessel sinuses. they're accountable for the blood vessel emptying of the cranium and emptying into the anterior jugular veins.

The dura receives its tube-shaped structure provided – primarily from the central artery and vein. Trigeminal nerves (V1, V2 and V3) innervate it.

Arachnoid mater

Located directly under the meninges is the arachnoid mater, which lies in the middle of the membrane. In addition to being avascular and uninnervated, it consists of layers of animal tissue.

Underneath the arachnoid may be a house called the sub-arachnoid house. The CSF in the brain cushions the brain. tiny projections of arachnoid mama into the meninx (known as arachnoid granulations) permit CSF to get in the circulation via the meninx blood vessel sinuses.

Pia Mater

The meninx is found beneath the sub-arachnoid house. The medulla spinalis, at the surface of the brain, is terribly thin and tightly affixed to the surface of the brain gyri and fissures are the only parts of the covering that follow the contours of the brain.

The underlying neural tissue is formed by blood vessels penetrating through the vascularised membrane. As is the case with the meninges, it is extremely vascularised.

Ventricles of the Brain

The ventricles square measure structures that manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, and transport it around the bodily cavity or in other words, cranial cavity. They're lined by ependymal cells, that kind of a structure referred to as the choroid plexus. it's inside the choroid plexus where the cerebrospinal fluid is created.

Embryologically, the bodily cavity or a ventricular cavity system comes from the lumen of the exoderm or a neural tube.

In total, there are in total of four ventricles; right and left lateral ventricles, fourth ventricles as well as third ventricles.

Lateral Ventricles

The cerebral structure known as the cerebrum contains the left and right lateral ventricles. The 'horns' extending from the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes would be important. the degree of the lateral ventricles will increase with age.

Third Ventricle

There is a foramen of Monro connecting the lateral ventricles with the ventricle. The ventricle is set in between the left and therefore the right neural structure called the thalamus. An anterior view of the ventricle shows two protrusions:
  • Supra-optic recess – situated higher than the chiasma optic.
  • Situated higher than the optic stalk is infundibular recess

Fourth Ventricle

The ventricle is that the last within the whole system. It receives cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricle via the channel and cerebrum aqueduct. It is situated at the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons within the brainstem.

From the fourth ventricle fluid drains into two places as follows:
  • Central epithelial duct – as it bathes the neural structure called the spinal cord.
  • Subarachnoid cisterns – in between the pia mater and arachnoid mater, it baths the brain. At this point, cerebrospinal fluid is said to get reabsorbed back into the circulation.

Cerebrospinal fluid

The clear, colorless fluid surrounds and fills the medulla spinalis and the brain, which forms a physical barrier against shock. The cerebrospinal fluid is predominantly produced within the brain's ventricles and is thought to support the brain and provide lubrication between surrounding bones, which in turn benefits the brain and medulla spinalis. The fluid acts as a cushion that distributes the impact of a head injury, dulling its force. The fluid helps to take care of pressure at intervals the cranium at a continuing level. When the volume of blood or brain tissue increases, the number of fluid decreases. Alternatively, if the volume of matter inside the skull decreases due to atrophy, the CSF increases to compensate. Additional chemicals, antibodies, metabolic wastes, and disease pathology products enter the bloodstream through the brain and spinal cord. CSF is also somewhat alkaline and comprises roughly ninety-nine percent water. The average adult human body contains 100 to 150 ml of CSF.

There is no confirmed technique for the production of cerebrospinal fluids. It is most likely filtered through the nervous-system membranes (ependyma) after originating within the ventricles of the brain. The CSF is regularly made, each one of it is always replaced every six to eight hours. Usually, veins leave the cerebrospinal fluids at several locations that include spinal roots, spaces around the spinal roots, as well as cranial nerves after the fluid gets absorbed by the veins. As CSF flows, gravity pulls downward, the continuous process of secretion and absorption, blood pulsation independent tissues, breathing, vein pressure, and head and body motion all contribute to CSF flow.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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