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Structure and Functions of Brain (Cerebrum, Brain Stem, Cerebellum)

Cerebral cortex, White matter, Hemispheres, medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons, Four brain lobes, Brainstem and cerebellum

Cerebrum

The neural structure commonly known as the cerebrum is that the upmost part of the brain. It is split by the central fissure and hence contains two hemispheres.

The key lobes of the brain and are liable for receiving and giving aiming to information from the sense organs, which are therefore contained by a neural structure called the cerebrum. And yet it is still as dominant as well as controlling the body.

However, the whole brain is thus not contained by the cerebrum itself. Below the neural structure called the cerebrum, there are two parts of the brain called the brain stem and cerebellum which therefore lie below the cerebrum and work together and hence regulate all the functions and voluntary actions inside the body.

The giant higher part of the brain is said to be called the telencephalon or cerebrum. Again, this is divided into two hemispheres by the central fissure as described earlier. In the human skull, there's the cerebellum which lies at the lower part near the structure beneath the rear portion whereas there's the cerebrum which is atop the skull.

The neural structure called the cerebrum itself incorporates a few divisions, that neuroscientists typically use to classify the functions of the various areas.

Cerebral cortex

A gray matter layer or part of the brain, the cerebral cortex is the outermost part of the brain. In humans, this cerebral cortex/gray mater is associated with an uneven surface with several folds. There are sulci commonly referred to as the folds that are there to increase the surface area of the brain whereas there are the ridges which are commonly called gyri and valleys.

The cerebral mantle additionally homes the four major lobes:
  • The temporal lobe
  • The parietal lobe
  • The frontal lobe
  • The occipital lobe
A central fissure within the brain divides these lobes into two sections.

As there are not any alternative distinct separations within the brain, neuroscientists divide the lobes roughly supporting the key folds within the space.

White matter

After the gray matter i.e., cerebral cortex, there's a white matter that is situated at the deeper levels beneath the gray matter. There are nerve fibers that are included in this white matter that is also referred to be axons which in turn helps to facilitate connect and transmit all the areas of the cerebral cortex/gray mater.

Hemispheres

Fissures separate the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum. The processes on the contralateral side of the body are controlled by each hemisphere. Signals from the left side of the brain control signals coming from the left of the body, while signals from the right side of the brain control signals coming from the right side. In addition, one hemisphere dominates certain functions over the other, although both control many functions.

Brain stem

A big part of the brain, called the brainstem, controls involuntary brain actions, including heartbeat and breathing. It is located between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord. In humans, there are three fundamental sections of the brainstem: the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon), the midbrain (mesencephalon), and the pons (metencephalon).

Several of the body's most vital functions are controlled by the brainstem, including swallowing, breathing, and vasomotion. The brainstem contains all the nuclei associated with the cranium except for those involved in olfaction and vision. The brainstem also supplies the senses of taste, equilibrium, and hearing, along with motor functions to various parts of the cranium. There are also nuclei in the brainstem that affect sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The brainstem contains both efferent and afferent pathways that branch out between the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and many of them decussate, or cross, within this structure. A brain stem lesion can have profound effects even if it affects a very small area of the nervous system, as the brain stem is home to many important neural structures. Among the many outcomes of the brainstem, disorders are speech disorders, vestibular disturbances, abnormal consciousness, and respiratory disturbances. Multiple sclerosis is caused by demyelination and a variety of conditions, including trauma, tumors, strokes, infections, and tumors. The loss of all brainstem functions is considered equivalent to brain death by some experts.

Cerebellum

Due to its location within the cerebellum, it is crucial to virtually all physical movements. A person's ability to walk across a room, throw a ball, or drive is due to this part of their brain. Additionally, the cerebellum controls eye movements and vision. Movement and coordination issues are common problems with the cerebellum. In a nutshell, the brain is divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum, which are all extremely complex structures. Higher-order thinking and action are carried out by the cerebrum. The cerebrum is divided into four lobes, each of which performs a specific task.

Four brain lobes

At the top of the brain, and at the front, the frontal lobe is locatedThese areas of the brain are responsible for the highest levels of human cognition, as well as for impulse control, judgment, decision-making, planning, and attention. There are two parietal lobes behind the frontal lobes. Sensory information is processed in this lobe to help an individual understand their position in the environment. The temporal lobe is located in the lower frontal lobe. Language, emotion, and visual memory are all linked to this lobe. Also located at the brain's back is the occipital lobe. Optic nerves transmit visual information to the occipital lobe.

Brainstem and cerebellum

For the cerebrum to function properly, the cerebellum and the brainstem must accompany it. As a result of the brainstem, numerous automatic functions are handled automatically, including breathing, circulation, sleep, digestion, and swallowing. Autonomic nervous system involuntary processes are controlled by this system. Reflexes are also controlled by the brainstem.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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