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Classification of Organic Compounds

A proper systematic classification was needed due to the large number of organic compounds.
A proper systematic classification was needed due to the large number of organic compounds. Acyclic compounds (open-chained) or cyclic compounds (closed-chained) are the two basic types of organic compounds.

There are many different organic compound structures, such as Lewis structure, space filled models, and structural formulas. The hydrogen atoms in an organic molecule tend to be represented in the structural formula by lines or by grouping them together. It is also suggested that their presence is related to the completion of the 4-bonds that are formed by the carbon atoms. The mass spectrum is a powerful tool for detecting organic compounds. The extractants all exhibited the ability to direct analyze the samples after extraction without the need for complex cleaning procedures. However, the extraction of organic compounds differed depending on the solvent used, suggesting that these solvents exist to solubilize specific organic compounds in biosolids.

By the early 1800s, Friedrich Wohler made the discovery that organic compounds could be synthesized by scientists from non-organic minerals and materials, demonstrating that organic chemistry extends beyond studying substances naturally produced by organisms. Modern chemistry and materials science have benefited greatly from carbon atoms as a basis for the creation of synthetic chemicals, pesticides, and many other products. There are many organic compounds that contain carbon, almost always bound to another carbon or hydrogen. There are instances in which carbon can be bound to other elements, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen.

Certain types of carbon compounds are not regarded as organic compounds. A number of compounds are present, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanate, cyanide, and carbon-containing ions. Carbon sometimes forms complex molecules with phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen. Despite this, relatively few carbons are not organic. Other carbon-containing ion compounds include cyanates, cyanides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

There are various types of alcohol, in addition to ethanol and isopropanol. In addition to being antiseptic, alcohol is also an important component of many drinks. Carboxylic acids are used to make pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. Carbalic acid, found in aspirin, is one of the oldest commercial medicines. Despite the fact that nature contains many millions of organic compounds, it is still possible to classify and name them using simple methods.

Carbon is another element that is essential to living organisms, as are other elements in organic compounds. Basically, carbon consists of four electrons, and its outer shell can accommodate eight electrons. These results in several types of bonds forming with other carbon atoms and elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen: Proteins and hydrocarbons are two strong examples of organic molecules capable of producing complex structures and long chains.

Organic compounds

Carbon is another element that is essential to living organisms, as are other elements in organic compounds. Basically, carbon consists of four electrons, and its outer shell can accommodate eight electrons. This leads to the formation of several types of bonds with other carbon atoms and elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Inorganic molecules capable of forming long chains and complex structures include hydrocarbons and proteins. The molecules that form these organic compounds are the building blocks of chemical reactions carried out in plant and animal cells - reactions necessary to obtain food, replicate, and carry out all the other processes associated with life.

Open chain compounds

Aliphatic compounds are those with a straight or branched chain.

Closed chain compounds

The atoms of carbon in these compounds are arranged in rings. They are homocyclic. Heterocyclic substances contain other atoms than carbon.

Aromatic compounds

Benzene and other compounds with rings are present in the compounds in question. Heteroatoms are also present in their rings, like in alicyclic rings. A heterocyclic aromatic compound is one that contains heteroatoms.

Functional groups can also be used to categorize families and homologous series of organic compounds.

Functional group

Functional groups are the chemical properties of organic compounds, which are the combinations of atoms that give them their properties. The hydroxyl group OH is used, as are the aldehyde group CHO and the carboxylic acid group COOH.

Homologous series

In organic chemistry, homologous series or groups of compounds whose members all share a common functional group are referred to as homologous compounds because they are distinguished by a fixed unit. As the homologous series is successively rearranged, each successive member is represented by a general formula, which differs from the molecular formula of the previous successive member by one CH2 unit. Among the varieties of homologous series found in organic chemistry are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, haloalkanes, alkanols, and amines.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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