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Protein Synthesis and Genetic Pattern of Inheritance

Protein synthesis occurs as a result of transcription, translation, and post-translational reactions in biological systems.

Protein synthesis

A protein molecule is created through protein synthesis. Protein synthesis occurs as a result of transcription, translation, and post-translational reactions in biological systems. Amino acid synthesis occurs when carbohydrates, such as glucose, are used as carbon sources to make amino acids. Amino acids are not all derived from food; some are derived from the body as well. During the transcription and translation processes, proteins are produced within the cells.

Transcription occurs when DNA is used as a template to make mRNA. The translation follows the transcription process. Amino acids are linked in a specific order according to the genetic code. Proteins undergo additional processing, such as proteolysis, post-translational modifications, and folding, after they have been translated.


Protein synthesis is the process of making proteins. Cellular processes are responsible for this function. Prokaryotes carry out the process in their cytoplasm. As it begins in the nucleus, mRNA is produced from the coding region of DNA. Upon leaving the nucleus, the transcript is translated into a protein molecule containing a specific sequence of amino acids by the ribosomes.

A cell's protein synthesis uses DNA, RNA, and a range of enzymes to create proteins. Among the many events covered by transcription, translation, and post-transcription are events such as protein folding, modification, and proteolysis.

Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Biomolecules such as proteins are vital for all living things to survive. A wide variety of proteins are produced by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochemical reactions are catalyzed by proteins, some of which serve as structural components. There are distinct differences between the protein synthesis of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For example, prokaryotic cells synthesize proteins in their cytoplasm. Each eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus, which participates in the transcription process. In the cytoplasm, ribosomes begin to form after the transcription (mRNA) is completed. Ribosomes are responsible for translating the mRNA into amino acids. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes synthesize protein differently, as shown in the following table.

Prokaryotic protein synthesis

  • Even before mRNA transcription is completed, translation has already begun
  • Unless archaea are involved, bacterial mRNA does not have a poly-A tail and a cap
  • AUG codon is the start of translation
  • PIF-1, PIF-2, PIF-3 are initiating factors

Eukaryotic protein synthesis

  • Transcripts are followed by translations
  • At the 3′ end of the mRNA transcript, the 5′ cap, and the poly-A tail are added
  • RNA is bound to the ribosomal unit by the 5' cap at the first AUG codon, and translation begins.
  • There are several factors that initiate the process: eIF1-6, eIF4B, eIF4C, eIF4D, eIF4F

The genetic pattern of inheritance

A person's genotype determines his or her phenotype. A genotype is determined by the alleles passed from one parent to the other (one from each parent). A trait's dominance or recessive depends on whether these alleles are present. Also, determining if a trait is "autosomal" or "X-linked" depends on the location of the allele in the genome. If the trait can be expressed with one copy of the allele, it is dominant. A trait is recessive if it requires two copies of an allele to manifest itself. An X-linked trait is controlled by an allele carried on the X chromosome, whereas an autosomal trait is controlled by an allele that does not reside on the X or Y chromosomes. Several factors play a role in X-linked traits, including dominant versus recessive alleles and offspring gender.


Probability of having a child who possesses a particular quality can be calculated by using Punnett squares. When two individuals know their genotypes for a trait, they can use a Punnett square to see the possible genotypes of their offspring and determine the likelihood of the trait expressing itself.

The Punnett square, on the other hand, provides information about offspring, whereas pedigrees are diagrams that assist individuals in analyzing inheritance patterns. In a pedigree, symbols are used to indicate the members of a family. In a pedigree, a square represents a male and a circle represents a female. Pedigree shading implies that the individual studied has the characteristic being studied. Diagonal lines denote deceased family members. Parallel branched lines below the couple indicate their offspring. A horizontal branching line indicates a mating, while a horizontal branching line indicates a mating. A pedigree that represents three generations is shown to the right.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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