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Catabolism of Purine Nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout Disease

Symptoms of hyperuricemia, Hyperuricemia causes, Gout Disease Symptoms, Gout Disease Causes

Nucleotide Purine Catabolism

Catabolism of purine nucleotides is closely associated with the active purine cycles, consisting of phosphorolysis and salvage to monophosphates of purine nucleosides, deoxyribonucleosides, and ribonucleotides. Purine nucleoside cycles may have a potential function in converting purine deoxyribonucleotides into their respective ribonucleotide derivatives. Deficiencies in the phosphorylase purine nucleoside or adenosine deaminase activity, enzymes involved or lead to the cycles of a purine nucleoside, and therefore in catabolism and immunodeficiency a selective defective deoxyribonucleotide.

The ultimate result of human purine catabolism is uric acid. The enzyme urate oxidase is used in other animals to excrete the more soluble allantoin as the final product. Human doesn't have this enzyme; thus, urate is our final result. Uric acid is predominantly produced in the liver and discharged into the urine via the kidney.


Hyperuricemia is not typically symptomatic; however, some people cause sodium urate crystals to accumulate in joints and tissues. In addition to intense discomfort, recurrent assaults lead to tissue damage and severe arthritic deformities. With these tophaceous deposits, the term gout should be limited to hyperuricemia.

The normal values of uric acid are 2.4 to 6.0 mg/dL (female) and 3.4 to 7.0 mg/dL (male). Normal values differ between laboratory to laboratory.

Purines are also crucial for blood uric acid levels. Purines are nitrogen-containing substances produced from meals containing purine within the body's cells (endogenous) or from outside the body (exogenous). Purine disintegrates into uric acid. Increased uric acid levels from excess purines might collect and form crystals in your tissues. It can produce excessive amounts of uric acid in the blood.

The production of uric acid may occur if blood uric acid levels are higher than 7 mg/dL. Problems like kidney stone and gout (uric acid crystals collect in the joints, particularly in your toes and fingers).

Symptoms of hyperuricemia

  • Severe joints ache
  • Joint rigidity
  • Difficulties are moving the joints involved
  • Redness and inflammation
  • Fabricated joints

Hyperuricemia causes

Hyperuricemia primary
  • Increased synthesis of purine uric acid
  • The uric acid in your blood cannot be disposed of in your kidneys, resulting in excessive amounts
Hyperuricemia secondary
Certain malignancies or chemotherapy drugs can produce an accelerated cell death turnover. It is generally related to chemotherapy; however, high uric acid might develop before chemotherapy is delivered.

After chemotherapy, cell death is frequently fast, and tumor lysis syndrome might ensue. If you have a high quantity of illness, you may be at risk for tumor lysis syndrome if you have chemotherapy for specific forms of leukaemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma.

Renal disease: this might lead you not to remove uric acid, producing hyperuricemia, from your system.

Drugs: may induce elevated uric acid levels in the blood

Endocrine or metabolism: some kinds of diabetes or acidosis may lead to hyperuricemia.

High amounts of uric acid might cause renal issues or none. People can live with high uric acid levels for many years and do not develop gout or arthritis (arthritis means "joint inflammation"). Just 20% of persons with high uric acid levels have gout, and some people with gout do not have considerably more elevated amounts of uric acid in their blood.

Gout Disease

Gout is a frequent and complicated form of arthritis, which can influence anyone. It has abrupt, acute pain episodes, swelling, redness and sensitivity in one or more joints, most of which are in the big toe.

There may be a sudden attack of gout, frequently waking you up in the middle of the night, feeling your big toe is on fire. The joint is heated, swollen, and so sensitive that it might be unpleasant even by the weight of the bedsheet.


The symptoms and indications of gout nearly often develop abruptly and typically at night. Including:
  • Intense discomfort in the joint.
  • Lingering inconvenience.
  • Inflammation and redness. Redness.
  • The scope of motions is limited.


Gout occurs if urate crystals build up in the joints, producing inflammation and severe gout attack pain. Urate crystals may develop when you have excessive uric acid levels in your blood. If your body breaks down purines, it creates uric acid – chemicals that are natural to your body.

In some meals, particularly red meat and organ meats such as liver, there are also purines. Purine rich in seafood include anchovies, sardines, moles, pancakes, trout and tuna. Alcoholic beverages, particularly beer and fruit sugar (fructose) drinks, cause greater uric acid levels.

Uric acid usually dissolves in your blood and flows into your urine through your kidneys. Your body occasionally generates too much uric acid, or your kidneys eliminate too little uric acid. When this happens, uric acid in a joint or surrounding tissue may develop into sharp uric crystals that cause pain, inflammation, oedema and swelling.


In conclusion, it shows that all purines are deaminated (with the amino group contributing to the general ammonium pool) and that their rings are oxidized to uric acid for excretion. Because the purine ring is excreted intact, no energy advantage accrues to man due to the carbons in this environment.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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