a) Forest resources b) Water resources c) Mineral resources d) Food resources e) Energy resources f) Land resources : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

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a) Forest resources b) Water resources c) Mineral resources d) Food resources e) Energy resources f) Land resources

We are fortunate to have forests in our country, which provide us with a variety of commodities for our daily lives, including timber, fuel wood

A. Forest Resources

We are fortunate to have forests in our country, which provide us with a variety of commodities for our daily lives, including timber, fuel wood, fodder, fiber, fruits, herbal drugs, cosmetics, and many types of raw materials. For example, there are a large number of mammals and birds that live in the forests that serve as useful living resources. In addition to soil formation, regenerating oxygen and conserving water, forests are essential to the environment. The decomposition of the tree's biomass fixes CO2 in the atmosphere, while transpiration (evaporation is lost to the atmosphere) moderates the climate. In today's world, forests play a vital role, as mentioned above. There are various functions it performs which can be observed directly. Some functions, however, cannot be observed directly, such as air purification and carbon sinking. For the purposes of this discussion, all the functions performed by the forest can be broadly classified under three major headings: ecological, economic, and social.

Economic significance

Forests are among the world's largest sources of renewable energy. A wide range of products and services are provided by the company in addition to fuel, food, and fodder. Homes, furniture, matches, ploughs, bridges, boats, and furniture are all made from wood. Forests provide many forest products such as tannins, gums, spices, waxes, honey, musk, and hides. Among the forest tribes, roots, fruits, leaves, and tubers are used as a source of food. Paper and rayon are made from wood pulp and bamboo pulp. Numerous life-sustaining products are also produced by forests' flora and fauna, including pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and pesticides. So that the forest can enhance its long-term resource value, it should harvest these substances sustainably.

Ecological significance

As mentioned above, forests play a role in regulating global climate, sustaining natural ecological processes and supporting natural ecosystems. Here are some of those functions:

Moderation of global climate - The influence of forests on natural cycles such as the hydrological and carbon cycles stabilizes global climate in an important way. These are types of cycles you probably studied in school. It is well-known that forest vegetation has a great effect on rainfall patterns, both spatially and temporally. In addition to retaining water in the soil and letting it flow away, tree cover affects how much water floods away. Also, trees can have an impact on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is stored in tree biomass. The forest has been identified as a major carbon sink, i.e., An absorbent of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon sinks are biological or artificial reservoirs that accumulate some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period of time. Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere when wood is burned. This contributes directly to global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. By increasing the number of forests, more atmospheric carbon dioxide can be removed by photosynthesis, resulting in a decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gases. For this reason, afforestation at large scales is considered a viable way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Protection of biodiversity - A forest provides ideal conditions for living organisms to survive and grow, and it is the greatest repository of biodiversity in the world. Forest ecosystems have a higher number of species per unit area than other terrestrial ones. There are more than 50% of all known species in tropical rainforests, which cover less than 7% of earth's surface. Tropical rainforests are home to 62% of all known species of plants. Therefore, a growing campaign has taken place to save the rain forests in Amazonia and the Nile basin. As humans become more aware of the importance and necessity of preserving biodiversity, they are recognizing the importance of forests.

Socio-cultural Significance

For our culture and social ethos, forests have always been integral to our existence. Modern, materialistic life still exhibits signs of such cultural bonds. Many people attribute this to forests' large aesthetic, recreation, and spiritual importance.

B. Water Resources

Natural water resources consist of a wide range of waters on the globe that are of potential use to humans in varying states (i.e., vapour, liquid, and solid). Water from oceans, rivers, and lakes is the most readily available resource; groundwater and deep subsurface water, as well as glaciers and permanent snowfields, are other water resources that can be utilized.

The use of natural waters by humans has steadily increased over time, especially in terms of freshwater resources. A continual population increase and the use of water for agricultural, industrial, and recreational purposes makes it unlikely that this trend will change. There are increasing concerns over water supply availability to meet societal needs in the future. The world's surface-water resources are already being fully utilized in many places.

C. Mineral Resources

The availability of mineral resources determines the socioeconomic development of a country. Mineral resources provide mankind with 95% of the energy it needs, 80% of the industrial raw materials it uses, and 70% of the raw materials it uses for agricultural production. Minerals, or inorganic substances found naturally in the earth's crust, are pure inorganic compounds. The number of minerals identified exceeds 2,000, and most of them are inorganic, formed from combinations of elements. In addition, a small portion of the earth's crust consists of organic materials, which are composed of single elements like gold, silver, diamonds, and sulfur.


  • Metallic mineral resources
  • Non-metallic mineral resources

D. Food Resources

This includes all commodities and products (simple, mixed, and compound), as well as their complements, that are capable of being consumed by humans or animals, regardless of their application to other uses, at all stages of processing, from the raw commodity to the finished product, which is technically marketed for humans or animals. A food resource includes a variety of starches, sugars, fats, oils, cotton, hemp, and flax fibers, in addition to the potable water packaged in commercially feasible containers, but excludes the materials after they cease to qualify as agricultural commodities or agricultural products.

An important aspect of human nutrition is that it provides energy and can sustain human body growth needs Importance of food. Humans get their energy from food. All of our bodily functions are maintained by food.
  • Development of the body and mind.
  • To protect and regulate the body's needs.

E. Energy Resources

Energy resources such as hydrocarbons, hydroelectricity, bioenergy, solar energy, wind power, etc., including depth and height information regarding the extent of the resource.

Despite economic, social, technological and environmental factors, energy resources can be considered irrespective of their viability for various purposes. It takes into account resources which have been depleted because of overexploitation in the past as well as resources which are not yet viable but could be in the future. It is imperative for the environment to know where energy resources are located and what their potential is. As a result, a correct understanding of the extent, distribution, and volume of the resources can have both positive and negative implications.

Renewable resources and fossil fuels are fundamentally different. Resources as well as their extent/distribution are included in the concept of energy resources. The theme does not cover energy usage, such as petrol use. Coal, lignite, uranium ore and oil are fossil fuel deposits, while natural gas, coal, and oil can also be found in fossil form. Water resources are mapped according to their energy potential in Hydropower, an environmentally friendly energy source. In bio-energy resources, forest products, cereals, and agricultural residues can be used as sources of energy, while wind power can be estimated using wind measurements and topographic data. The geothermal energy source is highly sought after because it is clean and sustainable.

F. Land Resources

A land resource is any land used or capable of sustaining life. This can be agricultural land, underground water, or various minerals like coal, bauxite, gold and others. For the growth of the crops sown on agricultural land, natural fertilizer is also present. Agricultural land is used for farming, but land reserves are meant for development of townships, buildings, and other uses, like developing towns. A land resource (a natural resource) is a product that naturally occurs within environments that are largely untouched by mankind, in its natural state.

Land resources, in the context of "land" as defined above, include natural conditions which are of direct economic value for human populations living in the area, or expected to move to the area: climatic conditions near the surface; soil conditions; terrain conditions; water conditions; and animal conditions that provide products. It is possible to quantify these resources economically to a large extent. They can have intrinsic value (no matter their location) or situational value (no matter their proximity to human settlements).
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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