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Endocrine System

Endocrine glands are located all over the body, and they produce hormones that communicate between cells.

Endocrine System

Endocrine glands are located all over the body, and they produce hormones that communicate between cells. Cells, organs, and tissues in your body depend on these proteins. It might be difficult for you to develop during puberty, get pregnant, or deal with stress if your endocrine system isn't healthy. If you have too much sugar in your blood, you might gain weight easily, have weak bones, or not have enough energy.

A hormone is secreted and made by glands within the body, and it performs specific functions. The substances that the exocrine and endocrine glands make are released into the bloodstream.


Endocrine system -
  • Produces hormones that can influence your mood, your growth and development, your metabolism, and your reproductive system
  • Regulates your hormone production
  • Transmits your hormones so they can be carried around your body


The endocrine system consists of many glands. There are three glands in your brain - the hypothalamus, pituitary, and pineal. In your neck are the thyroid gland and the parathyroid gland. Thymus and adrenal glands are located between your lungs, while the pancreas sits behind your stomach. A woman's ovaries are located in the pelvic region and a man's testes are found there.


The endocrine system and the nervous system are connected through this organ. Your pituitary gland relies on it to start or stop producing hormones.


The endocrine gland is considered to be the master gland. Your brain sends information to this gland so that it can instruct other glands in your body to do things. As well as growth hormone, corticotropin /ACTH: Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is a major hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It also produces prolactin, which helps nursing mothers to produce milk; antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin), responsible for controlling blood pressure and regulating body fluid balance. The thyroid gland produces certain hormones when stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It also triggers the release of oxytocin, a hormone involved in breast-feeding and in managing estrogen and testosterone.

Pineal gland

During the night, your body produces the chemical melatonin that aids sleep.

Thyroid gland

Thyroid hormone has a strong impact on your growth and metabolism. This gland produces insufficient thyroid hormones, leading to hypothyroidism. You may have a slower heartbeat. Constipation might occur. Your weight might go up. Hyperthyroidism makes everything go faster if there is too much production. You may experience rapid heartbeats. You might experience diarrhea. Your weight might fall off without your conscious effort. In addition to producing calcitonin, the thyroid gland helps calcium to be absorbed into bones, which may contribute to bone strength.

Parathyroid gland

The thyroid is surrounded by four small glands. These are responsible for the health of your bones. Calcium and phosphorus are controlled by these glands.


The T-lymphocytes that are produced by this gland fight infection and are crucial in a child's immune development. The gland shrinks after puberty.


These glands produce adrenaline (also called epinephrine), one of the primaries "fight-or-flight" hormones. They also produce corticosteroids. Their effects include affecting your oxygen intake, metabolism, blood flow, and even your sexual function.


This organ functions both as an organ of digestion and as an organ of endocrine function. Digestive enzymes are produced here that help you digest food. Glucagon and insulin are produced here as well. They ensure your bloodstream and cells are filled with the proper amount of sugar.

Having type 1 diabetes means you cannot make insulin, which means that your blood sugar levels can remain dangerously high. Insulin production by the pancreas is insufficient in people with diabetes type 2.


During female reproduction, estrogen and progesterone are produced in these organs. Breast development, regulating menstruation, and supporting pregnancy are all contributed to by these hormones.


Men produce testosterone in their testes. The hormone is responsible for hair growth in males during puberty. The hormone also makes the penis grow bigger, and contributes to the production of sperm.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of pharmaguideline.com, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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