Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Jaundice, Hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E, F) and Alcoholic Liver Disease : Pharmaceutical Guidelines -->

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Jaundice, Hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E, F) and Alcoholic Liver Disease

Chronic inflammation of the digestive tract is characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Chronic inflammation of the digestive tract is characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Typical IBD symptoms include:
  • Ulcerative colitis - Your large intestine (colon) and rectum are affected by inflammation and ulcers (sores).
  • Crohn's disease - IBD of this type is caused by inflammation of the digestive tract lining; the inflammation often affects the deeper layers.
There are several symptoms common to both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, including diarrhea, fatigue, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

Symptoms

A variety of inflammation symptoms can occur with inflammatory bowel disease, depending on where it occurs and how serious it is. A variety of symptoms are possible. The illness is likely to be active at times accompanied by remission at other times. Crohn's disease shares the following symptoms with ulcerative colitis:
  • Reduced appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Blood in stool
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain and cramping

Causes

Inflammatory bowel disease has yet to be diagnosed. The cause of IBD appears to be a combination of diet and stress, but this is not entirely true. It may be due to immune system malfunctions. In an abnormal immune response, your body attacks the digestive tract cells as well as an invading virus or bacteria. The fact that IBD is more common among people with family members with IBD seems also to have something to do with hereditary factors. Despite this, the majority of IBD sufferers have no family history of the disease.

Jaundice

Depending on bilirubin levels, the skin color and the color of the whites of the eyes may vary. When levels are moderate, they appear yellow, while extremely high levels appear brown. Regardless of age, jaundice can affect anyone and is normally caused by a underlying condition. When a patient becomes jaundiced, it usually indicates a problem with the liver or bile ducts.

Causes

The skin and whites of the eyes become yellow when the body is unable to process bilirubin properly. There are several causes of jaundice. In addition, icterus occurs when there is an excess accumulation of bilirubin in the body. After iron has been removed from the bloodstream, bilirubin remains in the bloodstream and is yellow in color. The liver is responsible for removing waste from the blood. Upon reaching the liver, bilirubin is attached to other chemicals. Conjugated bilirubin is formed from this reaction. Bile is produced by the liverBiologic excretion of conjugated bilirubin is administered by the liver. Feces have a brown color due to this kind of bilirubin. It can leak into nearby tissues if too much bilirubin is present. A yellow color is caused by high levels of bilirubin in the body, also known as hyperbilirubinemia.

Symptoms

Jaundice is characterized by the following symptoms:
  • Itchiness
  • Pale stools
  • Skin and eye whites become yellow, usually beginning at the scalp and spreading downwards Yellowing of skin and eye whites usually begin at the scalp and spread downwards
  • Dark urine
A low bilirubin level can be accompanied by the following jaundice symptoms:
  • Dark urine
  • Abdominal pain
  • Pale stools
  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Weight loss

Hepatitis

Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver. The condition can be caused by a variety of different health conditions, alcohol consumption, or certain medications. Hepatitis is generally caused by viral infections.

Inflammation of the liver results. Hepatitis is most commonly caused by viral infections; however, other conditions can damage the liver as well. Many conditions can cause the condition. They include autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, or alcohol-related hepatitis. An autoimmune hepatitis is triggered by antibodies produced in the body against the liver tissue. In addition to hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, there are five types of viral hepatitis. Each type is caused by a different virus.

Hepatitis A

People with hepatitis A are infected by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Acute, short-term hepatitis is characterized by this type of inflammation.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by HBV (the hepatitis B virus). Hepatitis B infection may become chronic, or last longer than six months, for some people. The consequences of chronic hepatitis B include liver failure, liver cancer, or cirrhosis, a condition where the liver is permanently scarred. Hepatitis B usually causes no long-term health problems in adults, even if they have severe symptoms. Chronic (long-term) hepatitis B infections are more common in children and infants.

Hepatitis C

HCV is the virus causing hepatitis C. Human cytomegalovirus (HCV) is the most common bloodborne viral infection in the United States and typically affects the patient over a long period of time.

Hepatitis D

Rarely occurring with hepatitis B, this form of hepatitis is caused by histidine dehydrogenase. HDV causes liver inflammation as do other strains, but you need a hepatitis B infection in order to contract HDV.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is often transmitted through ingesting contaminated water that has been contaminated with fecal matter in areas with poor sanitation. Since hepatitis E usually occurs acutely in pregnant women, they are especially at risk.

Hepatitis F

In 1994, the hepatitis F virus (HFV) was first reported as a cause of hepatitis transmitted through food or water.

Causes

Hepatitis is most commonly caused by infection, but other factors may also play a role.

Alcohol and other toxins

Alcohol can cause liver damage and inflammation when consumed in excess. Hepatitis caused by alcohol can also be called alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol damages your liver directly. Cirrhosis is a result of thickened or scarred liver tissue that leads to liver failure over time. Among the other toxic causes of hepatitis are the inappropriate use of medications and exposure to toxins.

Autoimmune system response

The immune system attacks the liver in some cases when it interprets it as harmful. Inflammation from this can vary from mild to severe, inhibiting liver function. Among women, it occurs more frequently than among men.

Symptoms

Symptoms may not appear until the damage to the liver affects liver function in chronic forms of hepatitis like hepatitis B and C. Acute hepatitis, on the other hand, may only present with symptoms after contracting a hepatitis virus. Infectious hepatitis causes the following symptoms:
  • Fatigue
  • Pale stool
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Dark urine
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Yellow coloured skin and eyes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain

Alcoholic Liver Disease

Alcoholic liver disease is also called as alcoholic hepatitis. The alcohol causes the liver to become inflamed, which results in hepatitis. A person who drinks heavily for a long period of time is most likely to develop alcohol-induced hepatitis. Alcohol and alcoholic hepatitis are difficult to link directly, however. Alcoholic hepatitis does not always affect heavy drinkers, and the disease can also affect moderate drinkers.

Symptoms

One of the most common symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis is yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice).

The following symptoms may also occur:
  • Fever
  • Fatigues and weakness
  • Abdominal tenderness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
People with alcoholic hepatitis often suffer from malnutrition. In addition to getting most of their calories from alcohol, a heavy drinker's appetite is suppressed by excessive alcohol consumption. A severe case of alcohol-related hepatitis may also present with the following signs and symptoms:
  • Ascites are fluid accumulations in the abdomen
  • The liver is normally responsible for breaking down and eliminating toxins, causing confusion and behavioral changes
  • Insufficiency of kidneys and liver
Alcohol causes liver damage, so it is called alcohol hepatitis. What damage alcohol does to the liver in heavy drinkers is still unknown, as is why it only does so in some individuals. These factors contribute to alcohol-related hepatitis:
  • In the process of metabolizing alcohol, the body releases toxic chemicals.
  • Inflammation triggers liver cell destruction when these chemicals are present.
  • Healthy liver tissue is replaced by scars over time, resulting in impaired liver function.
  • These irreversible scars are caused by alcoholic liver disease.
The following factors can contribute to alcohol-induced hepatitis:
  • Other types of hepatitis - The chances of developing cirrhosis are higher if you drink moderately while you have hepatitis C rather than not at all.
  • Malnutrition - Drinking heavily can result in malnutrition due to poor diets or poor nutrient absorption by the body. Dehydration causes liver cells to die.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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