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Inorganic and Organic Non-metals

In general, metals are classified as ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals as organic and inorganic materials.

Inorganic Non-metals

Glass

Containers made of glass are widely used in everyday life. Sand (pure silica) is arranged in sand basins, soda ash in soda ash basins, limestone in calcium carbonate basins, and broken glass in cullet basins. Glass cullet provides the fusion agent for the entire mixture. In its solid form, glass is considered to be supercooled liquid.

Types

Glasses come in different varieties, including

Soft glass - Calcium silicate and sodium silicate are the two ingredients in soft glass. Bulb and window glass can be made from it.

Hard glass - Calcium silicate and potassium silicate are the ingredients of hard glass. Glass apparatus is made from them.

Flint glass - Lead silicate and potassium silicate are the ingredients in Flint glass.

Quartz glass - Pure silica is used to make quartz glass. Quartz crucibles are made from them.

Laboratory glassware is generally made from Pyrex and Jena glass. Glasses are colored amber by adding iron oxide, but this chemical can leach into stored products.

According to I.P., pharmaceutical industries use four different types of glasses.

Type 1 (Borosilicate glass) possesses a high alkali resistance. Boron replaces earth and alkali cations in this compound. The material is less brittle. They can be easily cleaned and sterilized.

Sulfur dioxide vapors neutralize surface alkali in Type II (trayled soda lime glass). A buffered aqueous solution with a pH lower than 7 is stored in them.

There are 10 times more alkaline released in type III (Soda lime glass) than type 1 and type II. This glass is moderately resistant to hydrolysis. Suitable for dry powder and oily liquids.

For Type IV soda lime glass (general purpose glass), homosexual use is not permitted. Among the products that can be kept in these containers are tablets, liquids, suspensions, ointments and ointments for external use.

If glassware are stored in a damp environment for more than a month with varied temperatures, they will bloom or weather. Salt leaches from glass, causing fine crystals to appear. Acid and water are used to wash away salt. The hydrolytic resistance of pharmaceutical glass should be tested.

Glasses Steel
A product of fusion, it is organic. When cooled to rigidity, it does not crystallize. Heavy vessels are made of them. They have excellent resistance to acids. It is suitable when transparent pipes are used.

Organic Non-metals

Rubber

Lining materials are made of it.

Latex

Advantages - When the latex is taken out of the container, it is ready to be used. It is an elastic mouldable rubber with a good resistance to abrasion and is inexpensive. Wax and gypsum can also be molded using latex Moulds.

Disadvantages - Latex products that are low in cost tend to shrink. Moulds made with latex rubber take a long time to make. Most latex moulds cannot be used to melt resin.

Polysulfide Rubbers

Advantages - Some polysulfide moulds have a useful life of 40 years, they are soft, elastic, pliable, and durable.

Disadvantages - It has a strong odor. A precise weight mix of polysulfides is necessary for them to work. Latex rubber costs less than polysulfide rubber.

Silicon Rubbers

Advantages - All mold rubbers have excellent release properties, but silicone has the best. In resin castings, silicone is the best choice because of its combination of excellent release properties, chemical resistance, and heat resistance.

Disadvantages - It is common for silicones to be very expensive.

Polyurethane Rubbers

Advantages - The use of polyurethanes is simple. Silicones and polysulphides are more expensive.

Disadvantages - Urethane rubber adheres to almost anything and has bad release properties, as silicone rubber has the best release properties. Once opened, their storage life is limited.

Plastic

Plastics are among the most widely used materials. It is light in weight. It is not feasible to contaminate metal containers. Plastic containers come in many shapes. High temperatures should not be used with plastic containers. The most common tube and pipe material is plastic. They are typically used to store acids and inorganic salts. They are easily sized. Plastic does not corrode in air or water. Insulating with it is therefore easy.

Types

Thermoplastic - Upon cooling, they regain their original form after being softened with pressure and heat.

Thermosetting - After pressure and heat are applied, they are permanently shaped into rigid structures. Their durability is poor when severely abraded.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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