Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid, Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepirac : Pharmaguideline -->

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Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid, Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepirac

>Non-selective NSAIDs block the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, while COX-2 selective NSAIDs only block the activity of the COX-2 enzyme.

Anti-inflammatory agents: NSAIDs and corticosteroids

Non-selective NSAIDs block the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, while COX-2 selective NSAIDs only block the activity of the COX-2 enzyme.

However, COX-2 inhibitors have also been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and strokes.
Sodium salicylate as an anti-inflammatory agent:
Sodium salicylate is a white, crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water.

It is thought to be more effective than aspirin in reducing inflammation without causing gastrointestinal side effects. It is also used to reduce fever.

Side effects of sodium salicylate include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ringing in the ears, and confusion.


In addition to its pain-relieving effects, aspirin has anti-inflammatory and blood-thinning properties.

These effects make aspirin useful for treating a variety of conditions that involve inflammation or risk of blood clots.

Aspirin is most commonly used to relieve the pain of arthritis, but it can also be effective in treating other conditions that cause inflammation.

These include gout, menstrual cramps, and headaches.

Aspirin can also be taken to prevent heart attacks and strokes in people who are at high risk for these conditions.

Aspirin can also be used to treat existing blood clots.

Although aspirin is a safe and effective medication, it can cause some side effects.

Mefenamic acid

Mefenamic acid, also known as Ponstel, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve pain from various conditions like:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Menstrual cramps
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Gout
  • Headaches
  • Toothaches
Mefenamic acid is also used to reduce fever.
- are taking other medications, including blood thinners, aspirin, or warfarin
- are pregnant or breastfeeding.


As a COX-2 inhibitor, meclofenamate is effective in reducing inflammation and pain. It is available as a prescription drug and is also included in some over-the-counter (OTC) pain relief medications. Meclofenamate can be taken by mouth or applied to the skin as a cream or gel.

When meclofenamate is used to treat pain, it is usually prescribed in combination with other pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Side effects of meclofenamate can include stomach upset, diarrhea, and headache. Meclofenamate can also cause drowsiness.

Sulindac: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Sulindac is a NSAID that is used to relieve pain that ranges from mild to moderate, inflammation, and fever.

Side effects of sulindac include:
  • Upset stomach
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Rash
Sulindac can also cause kidney problems and liver damage. If you take sulindac for a long period of time, your doctor will likely monitor your kidney and liver function with blood tests.


A medical history and physical examination are important in the evaluation of any patient with a suspected musculoskeletal disorder. The patient's age, sex, occupation, and recreational activities should be noted.

Tenderness overlying the affected muscles or joints may be elicited. A bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also be ordered.

Tolmetin is usually taken 3-4 times daily with food. Treatment for low back pain includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Physical therapy and analgesics may also be prescribed.

Other common musculoskeletal disorders include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, and tendinitis. Treatment of these disorders typically includes a combination of rest, ice, heat, physical therapy, and pain medication.

Zomepirac: A Novel Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agent

  • Zomepirac sodium is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties.
  • It belongs to the oxicam family of NSAIDs, which also includes piroxicam and meloxicam.
  • Zomepirac has a high degree of binding to plasma proteins and a long half-life, which results in once-daily dosing.
  • The aim of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety of zomepirac in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with various conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and postoperative pain.
Zomepirac can be taken once daily, making it a convenient option for patients.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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