Morphine and Related Drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine, Meperidine hydrochloride, Anileridine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride, Loperamide hydrochloride : Pharmaguideline -->

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Morphine and Related Drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine, Meperidine hydrochloride, Anileridine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride, Loperamide hydrochloride

Morphine is an opioid analgesic medication and is considered the prototypical painkiller. Its effectiveness as an antispasmodic agent is unclear.
Morphine is an opioid analgesic medication and is considered the prototypical painkiller. Its effectiveness as an antispasmodic agent is unclear. It may also be used to help with postoperative pain and sometimes to begin labor or ease the pain of childbirth.
  • As a result, it is frequently used non-medically, for recreational purposes, often via intravenous administration, which has led to many accidental overdoses.
  • It is also commonly used in hospitals as a strong painkiller for those in intensive care, terminal cancer patients, and during childbirth.
  • They include semi-synthetic opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin and fully synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and methadone.
  • These drugs have similar analgesic effects to morphine but can be more potent or have different side effects.
  • In addition, because of their potential for abuse and addiction, they are often regulated differently than morphine.
  • They are available only through a prescription from a doctor and are tightly regulated.
  • Morphine and its analogues are also controlled substances in many other countries. In some cases, they are available only by prescription, while in others, they may be bought over the counter or obtained illegally.
Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.

SAR of Morphine analogues
Morphine analogues are a class of drugs that act on the nervous system to produce pain relief. These drugs are similar in structure and function to opioids, and they are used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.

Morphine analogues include Codeine, Fentanyl, Hydrocodone, Methadone, Oxycodone, and Tramadol.

Morphine analogues are generally safe and effective when used as directed, but they can cause serious side effects including respiratory depression, constipation, and addiction.

When used for extended periods of time, these drugs can also lead to tolerance and physical dependence.

If you are considering taking a morphine analogue, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to discuss the potential risks and benefits.

Morphine sulphate

It is available only through a prescription from a doctor and is tightly regulated.
  • The most common side effects of morphine sulphate include constipation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and itching.
  • Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.
  • Morphine sulphate is a controlled substance in many other countries.
  • In some cases, it is available only by prescription, while in others, it may be bought over the counter or obtained illegally.

Codeine

  • Codeine is a painkiller used to treat mild to moderate pain.
  • Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.
  • Codeine should be used with caution in people with a history of substance abuse or mental health disorders.

Meperidine hydrochloride

  • Meperidine hydrochloride is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, meaning it has a high potential for abuse and may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence and it is available only through a prescription from a doctor and is tightly regulated.
  • The most common side effects of meperidine hydrochloride include constipation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and itching.
  • Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.

Anileridine hydrochloride

  • Anileridine hydrochloride is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
  • It is available only through a prescription from a doctor and is tightly regulated.
  • Anileridine hydrochloride's most common side effects include constipation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and itching.
  • It can also cause low blood pressure, slow heart rate, and shallow breathing.
  • Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.

Diphenoxylate hydrochloride

Diphenoxylate hydrochloride is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is available only through a prescription from a doctor and is tightly regulated.

Diphenoxylate hydrochloride's most common side effects include constipation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and itching. Serious side effects include addiction, respiratory depression, and seizures.

Loperamide hydrochloride

Loperamide hydrochloride is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain. Loperamide hydrochloride is a Schedule III controlled substance in the United States, meaning it has a lower potential for abuse than Schedule II drugs but may still lead to dependence. Therefore, it is available only through a prescription from a doctor.

Loperamide hydrochloride's most common side effects include constipation, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and itching.

It can also cause low blood pressure, slow heart rate, and shallow breathing. Serious side effects include addiction and seizures.

Therefore, Loperamide hydrochloride should be used with caution in people with a history of substance abuse or mental health disorders.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of Pharmaceutical Guidelines, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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