Structure and Uses of Citric acid, Succinic acid. Oxalic acid, Salicylic acid, Benzoic acid : Pharmaguideline -->

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Structure and Uses of Citric acid, Succinic acid. Oxalic acid, Salicylic acid, Benzoic acid

The chemical formula of citric acid is C6H8O7. Monohydrate and anhydrous forms are both possible.

Citric acid


The chemical formula of citric acid is C6H8O7. Monohydrate and anhydrous forms are both possible. Citrus fruits like lemons, oranges, and other citrus fruits contain this acid. A tribasic acid, it is usually found in citrus fruits. White crystalline solid, crystalline in shape, odourless, and sour in taste. There are only one type of crystal in the crystal structure. Carl Wilhelm Scheele became the first person to isolate this organic acid in 1784. The market refers to it as sour salt because it is similar in appearance to table salt.


  • It has antioxidant properties
  • As an ingredient in kitchen and bathroom cleaning solutions, it can be used as a cleaning agent
  • Ice creams use it to emulsify
  • In soft drinks and other foods, it adds a sour taste
  • It is also used in shampoos
  • Caramel is crystallized from sucrose by using this ingredient
  • food coloring
  • it is also used in food preservation
  • Evaporators, boilers, kettles, etc. use it to clean chalky deposits.

Succinic acid


A dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O4, succinic acid plays a significant role in microbial metabolism, and it is widely distributed in plant and animal tissues. 185-187° C (365-369° F) melting point. This is an insoluble, colourless crystalline solid soluble in water. Amber (Latin: succinum), the product of which succinic acid is named, was first used as a distillation product. Catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride is the most common method of creating succinic acid, but there are other methods being investigated. In addition to its use as a pharmaceutical compound, succinic acid is also used in agriculture and food production.


As a chemical intermediate, this colorless, water-soluble crystal with an acid taste is used to make lacquers, medicines, and perfume esters. Sequestrants, buffers, and neutralizing agents are also formed by it in foods.

Oxalic acid


Oxalic acid has the chemical formula C2H2O4 and is a dicarboxylic acid. Plant species Oxalis and Rumex produce the potassium and calcium salts of oxalic acid in their cell sap. Oxalic acid is a weak acid which partially ionizes in an aqueous solution. It consists of two acidic protons. Upon ionization, HC2O4- is produced, a weak acid that also ionises. Carbonic acid and several other acids are emitted from their salts by oxalic acid, one of the most powerful organic acids. Oxalic acid is formed by either the reaction of the hydrate of potash with nitric acid or the reaction of the hydrate of potash with water. Diprotic acid is also referred to as oxalic acid.


  • Dyeing processes use it as a mordant
  • for removing rust
  • Lanthanide chemistry relies on this reagent for important reactions
  • for shining marble sculptures
  • dye is manufactured with it
  • to make bleach
  • and in the removal of stains caused by food and ink
  • during the development of photographic film
  • As a wastewater treatment process, it removes calcium deposits.
Efficacious inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase, or LDH, are derived from oxalic acid's conjugate base, the hydrogen oxalate anion. By oxidizing coenzyme NADH to NAD+ and H+ at the same time, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactic acid, an end product of fermentation. It is vital to restore NAD+ levels in order to maintain glycolysis for anaerobic energy metabolism. It has been demonstrated that suppressing LDH inhibits tumour development and growth since cancer cells prefer anaerobic metabolism. Therefore, this compound may be of interest as a possible cancer treatment.

Salicylic acid


In its chemical formula, C7H6O3, salicylic acid can be described as a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) and phenol. The compound is naturally occurring in plants. This compound possesses plant hormone properties. A derivative of salicin metabolism, monohydroxybenzoic acid is lipophilic and non-toxic. In addition to keratolysis and bacteriostatic action, the organic carboxylic acid is fungicidal. Excessive consumption will cause poisoning. When consumed in small amounts, it can be utilized as an antiseptic and as a food preservative. The chemical group is carboxylic acid, COOH. The substance has no odor and no color.


  • Toothpaste contains it as an antiseptic
  • It removes the outer layer of the skin in the medical field
  • Acne, dandruff, and wrath of the sun can all be treated with it
  • Preservation can also be the use
  • In the manufacture of drugs such as aspirin
  • in order to relieve joint and muscle pain
  • And to relieve pain from mouth ulcers
  • It is used as an important ingredient in skin care products

Benzoic acid


C6H5COOH is the chemical formula for benzoic acid, an organic compound. Carboxyl groups are attached to benzene rings. Because of this, benzoic acid can be considered an aromatic carboxylic acid. When under normal conditions, this compound is a colorless, crystalline solid. C6H5COOH esters and salts are referred to as benzoates. An illustration of a molecule of C6H5COOH can be found below. Benzene rings are attached to carboxyl groups in this molecule. Carbon is composed of seven atoms and oxygen of two atoms.


  • C6H5COOH is used for a number of important purposes.
  • Benzoic acid is required for the production of phenol.
  • It is used in ointments for preventing or treating fungal skin infections.
  • Preservatives such as C6H5COOH are used in the food industry.
  • In many cosmetic products, including lipsticks, benzoic acid is an ingredient.
  • Benzoyl chloride is also produced because of benzoic acid.
  • Among the compounds that make up toothpastes, mouthwashes, and face wash creams is C6H5.
  • In addition to its use in dyes and insect repellents, this compound can also be found in various other products.
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Ankur Choudhary is India's first professional pharmaceutical blogger, author and founder of, a widely-read pharmaceutical blog since 2008. Sign-up for the free email updates for your daily dose of pharmaceutical tips.
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